Essentials of Demonology: A Study of Jewish and Christian Doctrine, Its Origin and Development

Essentials of Demonology: A Study of Jewish and Christian Doctrine, Its Origin and Development

by Edward Langton


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781498205061
Publisher: Wipf & Stock Publishers
Publication date: 09/23/2014
Edition description: Reprint
Pages: 274
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.58(d)

Table of Contents

Foreword vi

Preface vii

List of Illustrations xvi

Introductory Note xvii

Bibliography xix

This has been prepared not in sections, but as a General Bibliography; otherwise there would have been much overlapping.

Chapter 1 Ancient Semitic Demonology

I The Background of Primitive Conceptions 1

Friendly and Hostile Departed Human Spirits

Non-human Evil Spirits

Evil Spirits in Animal Forms.

II Arab and Early Hebrew Demonology 4

The Ubiquity of Demons and Their Classification

Special Haunts of Demons

Special Times for Demonic Activity

Corporeality of Demons

Various Operations of Demons

Sources of Demonological Conceptions.

III Babylonian, Assyrian, and Early Hebrew Demonology 10

Suppression of Hebrew Demonological Beliefs by the Yahwistic Movement

The Dominant Features of Babylonian and Assyrian Religion

The Number of the Demons

Various Classes of Demons (The Utukku; The Alu; The Ekimmu (Edimmu); The Gallu; The Ilu Limnu ('Evil God'); The Rabisu. Labartu, Labasu, Ahhazu; Lilu, Lititu, and Ardat Lili; Shedîm

The Seven Evil Spirits

The Forms and Abodes of Demons

Spirits which Cause Disease and Sickness

Defences against Demons

Demon Possession and Exorcism (The Use of Magical Objects and Preparations; The use of Incantations; The use of Words of Power; Knowledge of the Supernatural Enemy; The Use of Sympathetic Magic)

The Relation of Evil Spirits to the Gods.

Chapter 2 The Demonology of the Old Testament and Its Expansion in Rabbinic Literature

Introductory Note 35

I Demonic Serpents (Seraphim) 37

Demons in Serpent Form

Fiery Flying Serpents

The Seraphim.

II The Se'irim, or Hairy Demons 39

The Se'irim in the Old Testament

The Se'irim as Objects of Worship

The Form of the Se'irim.

III Some Other Demonic Animals 41

Wild Beasts

Doleful Creatures




IV Azazel (The Scapegoat) 43

The Ceremony on the Day of Atonement

The Significance of the Ceremony

A Survival from Ancient Popular Religion.

V Lilith (The Night Demon) 47

Lilith in the Old Testament

Lilith in the Rabbinic Literature

Source of the Conception.

VI Debet, Keteb, and 'Alukah 48

Deber, the Demon of Pestilence

Keteb, the Demon of Noon-day

'Alukak, the Leech-like Demon.

VII The Shêdîm 51

The Shîdim in the Old Testament and in the Rabbinic Literature

The Prophetic Conception

The Beginnings of a Hebrew Demonology.

VIII Satan 52

Satan in the Old Testament

Satan in the Rabbinic Literature

The Origin and Development of the Conception.

Chapter 3 The Relation of Jewish to Persian Conceptions

Introductory Note 61

I The Nature of Persian Dualism 63

The Temporary Character of Persian Dualism-The Persian World-view.

II The Character of Angra Mainyu (Ahriman) 64

The Meaning of the Compound Expression

Angra Mainyu viewed as the Supreme Spirit of Evil.

III The Realms of Ahura Mazda and Ahriman 65

Two Primeval Spirits

The Fundamental Idea

The Temptation of Zoroaster.

IV The Defeat and Destruction of Ahriman 67

The Coming Triumph of the Good

The Coming of a Saviour

Renewal and Resurrection.

V The Relation between Satan and Ahriman 68

Satan and Ahriman the Heads of Hosts of Evil Spirits

Satan a Created, but Rebellious Angel: Ahriman an Independent Spirit

Satan and Ahriman are both associated with the Serpent

The Similar Functions of Satan and Ahriman

The Coming Destruction of Satan and Ahriman affirmed.

VI The Origin and Nature of Demons (Daevas) 71

The Changed Connotation of the term Daevas

The Daevas created by Ahriman.

VII The Number and Classification of Demons 72

The Demons Numerous and at first Unclassified

Demons are both Visible and Invisible.

VIII The Abode of Demons and their Abolition 73

The Localities Favoured by Demons

Protection against Demons.

IX The Principal Demons 73

Aka Manah

The Druj


Azi Dahaka.

Chapter 4 The Relation of Jewish to Greek Conceptions

Introductory Note 79

I The Earliest Greek Conceptions 81

Departed Spirits viewed as Demons

Demons cause Diseases and Other Ilia

The Dark Underworld of Spirits

Ceremonies of Aversion.

II The Nature of Demons 84

The Early Usage of the Term 'Demon'

Demons viewed as Mediators between Gods and Men

Demons viewed as Morally Imperfect Beings

Demons viewed as Morally Evil Beings.

III Various Demonic Conceptions 89




The Sphinx


IV The Demon of Socrates 91

Socrates on the Nature of Demons

Discussions in the Works of Xenophon and Plato

The Nature of the Demon of Socrates.

V Oracles and Demons 94

The Oracle as a Means of Spirit Communication

The Oracle of Delphi

The Oracle and Demonic Possession.

VI Some Later Greek Conceptions 99

Pythagorean and Other Beliefs

The Testimony of Plutarch to the Operations of Demons

The Platonic Conceptions of Demons

The Teaching of Philo.

Chapter 5 The Teaching of Jewish Apocryphal and Apocalyptic Literature

Introductory Note 105

I The Fall of the Angels and the Origin of Demons 107

The Second Century B.C.

The Fall of the Angels

The Origin of Demons-Divergent Accounts of the Origin of Demons

The Imprisonment of Evil Spirits

Ethical Conceptions personalized as Evil Spirits.

The First Century B.C.

The Satans and their Chief

The Preliminary Place of Punishment

Satans distinguished from Fallen Angels.

The First Century A.D.

The Teaching of 2 Enoch

The Character of Azazel

Satan's Rebellion and Expulsion from Heaven

A Comparison with Rabbinic Teaching.

II The Chiefs of Fallen Angels and the Princes of Demons 119

The Second Century B.C.

Asmodaeus, the Evil Demon

Semjaza and Azazel, Chiefs of Fallen Angels

Mastema, the Prince of Evil Spirits

Beliar, the Satanic Spirit

Satan or the Devil. The First Century B.C.

The Satans and Satan

The Satans have Access to God in Heaven.

The First Century A.D.

Azazd, the Fallen Archangel

Beliar, Mastema, and Sammael

Satanail, the Prince of Fallen Angels

Satan or the Devil, the Enemy of God and Man.

III The Operations and Doom of Evil Spirits 139

The Second Century B.C.

The Operations of Evil Spirits

The Final Doom of Evil Spirits.

The First Century B.C.

The Activities of the Satans

Their Final Doom.

The First Century A.D.

Aerial Spirits and their Activities

The Two Impulses in Man

The Final Doom of Evil Spirits.

Chapter 6 The Teaching of the New Testament

Introductory Note 145

I The Teaching of the Synoptic Gospels and of the Fourth Gospel 147

The Teaching of the Synoptic Gospels: The Existence and Operation of Demons

The Phenomena of Demoniacal Possession

Christ's Control over the Demons: Exorcism

The Exorcism of Demons by the Disciples of Jesus and Others

The Prince of Demons, Satan or the Devil, Beelzebub (The Jewish Background of the Synoptic Teaching concerning Satan or the Devil; The Relation of Satan to Beelzebub; Satan, the Tempter of Jesus; The Character and Operations of Satan as described by Jesus; The Final Destruction of Satan).

The Teaching of the Fourth Gospel.

Christ's Attitude to the Belief in Satan.

II The Teaching of the Acts of the Apostles 174

Demon Possession and Exorcism

Demons, Divination, and Sorcery

The Belief in Satan or the Devil.

III The Teaching of St. Paul's Epistles 183

The Relation between Demons and Idolatry

The Power of the Air and the Spiritual Hosts of Wickedness in Heavenly Places

Beliar, the Prince of Evil

The Character and Operations of Satan or the Devil (General References to Satan or the Devil; Satan and the Man of Sin; The Delivery of Men to Satan; Satan, the God of this World or Age).

IV The Teaching of Hebrews and of the Remaining Epistles 198

Teaching concerning Demons

The Imprisonment of the Rebellious Angels

The Devil viewed as the Angel of Death and as Man's Great Adversary

The Conception of the Devil in the Johannine Epistles.

V The Teaching of the Book of Revelation 204

Teaching Concerning Demons

Abaddon or Apollyon, King of the Demonic Hosts

The Conception of the Dragon

The Manifold Activities of Satan

The Binding, Loosing, and Final Destruction of Satan (The Binding of Satan; The Period of a thousand years

The Millennium; The Final Destruction of Satan).

Summary of Conclusions

I Elementary Conceptions 219

II The Background of Old Testament Demonology 220

III The Teaching of Jewish Apocryphal and Apocalyptic Literature 221

IV The Teaching of the New Testament 222

The Teaching of Jesus in the Gospels

The Teaching of the Rest of the New Testament Writings.


I Index of Subjects 226

II Index of Leading Authorities mentioned 228

III Index of Passages from the Old Testament 230

IV Index of Passages from the Apocryphal and Apoca-lyptic Literature 230

V Index of Passages from the Rabbinical Literature 232

VI Index of Passages from the New Testament 233

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