ISBN-10:
0314036865
ISBN-13:
9780314036865
Pub. Date:
05/01/1994
Publisher:
West Group
Essentials of Psychology / Edition 6

Essentials of Psychology / Edition 6

by Dennis Coon

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780314036865
Publisher: West Group
Publication date: 05/01/1994
Series: Psychology Series
Edition description: Older Edition

Table of Contents

Introduction: The Psychology of Studyingxxxiii
The SQ4R Method--How to Tame a Textbookxxxiii
Effective Note-Taking--Good Students, Take Note!xxxiv
Study Habits--Avoiding the Last-Minute Bluesxxxv
Taking Tests--Are You "Test Wise"?xxxvii
Using Electronic Media--Netting New Knowledgexxxviii
Chapter 1Psychology: The Search for Understanding1
Psychology--Spotlight on Behavior2
A Brief History of Psychology--Psychology's Family Album8
Psychology Today--Five Views of Behavior13
Psychologists--Guaranteed Not to Shrink15
Scientific Research--How to Think Like a Psychologist20
Naturalistic Observation--Psychology Steps Out!23
Correlational Studies--In Search of the Perfect Relationship24
The Psychology Experiment--Where Cause Meets Effect26
The Clinical Method--Data by the Case31
Survey Method--Here, Have a Sample31
Summary--Science and Critical Thinking32
Chapter 2The Brain, Biology, and Behavior44
Neurons--Building a "Biocomputer"45
The Nervous System--Wired for Action48
The Cerebral Cortex--My, What a Big Brain You Have!55
The Subcortex--At the Core of the (Brain) Matter62
The Endocrine System--Hormones and Behavior65
Chapter 3Child Development75
Heredity and Environment--The Nurture of Nature76
Childbirth--The First Journey84
The Newborn Baby--The Basic Model Comes with Options85
Social Development--Baby, I'm Stuck on You92
Language Development--Fast-Talking Babies97
Cognitive Development--How Do Children Learn to Think?101
Moral Development--Growing a Conscience106
Deprivation and Enrichment--In Search of Tender Loving Care108
Chapter 4From Birth to Death: Life-Span Development118
The Cycle of Life--Rocky Road or Garden Path?119
Problems of Childhood--Why Parents Get Gray Hair123
Serious Childhood Problems--Off to a Bad Start125
Adolescence--The Best of Times, the Worst of Times130
Vocational Choice--Charting a Course in the World of Work134
Challenges of Adulthood--Charting Life's Ups and Downs136
Aging--Will You Still Need Me When I'm 64?139
Death and Dying--The Curtain Falls145
Chapter 5Sensation and Reality157
General Properties of Sensory Systems--What You See Is What You Get158
Psychophysics--Life at the Limit160
Vision--Catching Some Rays163
Color Vision--There's More to It than Meets the Eye168
Dark Adaptation--Let There Be Light!170
Hearing--Good Vibrations173
Smell and Taste--The Nose Knows When the Tongue Can't Tell177
Adaptation, Attention, and Gating--Tuning In and Tuning Out183
Chapter 6Perceiving the World191
Perceptual Constancies--Taming an Unruly World192
Perceptual Grouping--Getting It All Together193
Depth Perception--What If the World Were Flat?199
Pictorial Cues for Depth--A Deep Topic201
Perceptual Learning--What If the World Were Upside Down?206
Motives and Perception--May I Have Your ... Attention!211
Perceptual Expectancies--On Your Mark, Get Set214
Extrasensory Perception--Do You Believe in Magic?216
Chapter 7States of Consciousness226
States of Consciousness--The Many Faces of Awareness227
Sleep--A Nice Place to Visit227
Biological Rhythms229
Sleep Needs and Patterns230
Stages of Sleep--The Nightly Roller Coaster Ride232
REM Sleep--In the Theater of Dreams234
Hypnosis--Look into My Eyes238
Meditation--The Twenty-Minute Vacation241
Drug-Altered Consciousness--The High and the Low of It244
Uppers--Amphetamines, Cocaine, Caffeine, Nicotine244
Downers--Sedatives, Tranquilizers, and Alcohol251
Marijuana--What's in the Pot?254
Chapter 8Conditioning and Learning265
What Is Learning--Does Practice Make Perfect?266
Classical Conditioning--Does the Name Pavlov Ring a Bell?267
Elements of Classical Conditioning--Teach Your Little Brother to Salivate269
Classical Conditioning in Humans--An Emotional Topic271
Operant Conditioning--Can Pigeons Play Ping-Pong?273
Operant Reinforcers--What's Your Pleasure?278
Partial Reinforcement--Las Vegas, a Human Skinner Box?283
Stimulus Control--Red Light, Green Light285
Punishment--Putting the Brakes on Behavior287
Cognitive Learning--Beyond Conditioning290
Modeling--Do as I Do, Not as I Say292
Chapter 9Memory301
Stages of Memory--Do You Have a Mind Like a Steel Trap? Or a Sieve?302
Short-Term Memory--Do You Know the Magic Number?305
Long-Term Memory--Where the Past Lives306
Measuring Memory--The Answer Is on the Tip of My Tongue311
Forgetting--Why We, Uh, Let's See; Why We, Uh ... Forget!317
Memory Formation--Some "Shocking" Findings323
Improving Memory--Keys to the Memory Bank326
Chapter 10Cognition, Intelligence, and Creativity335
What Is Thinking?--It's All in Your Head!336
Mental Imagery--Does a Frog Have Lips?337
Concepts--I'm Positive, It's a Whatchamacallit340
Language--Don't Leave Home without It341
Problem Solving--Getting an Answer in Sight347
Artificial Intelligence--I Compute, therefore I Am351
Human Intelligence--The IQ and You353
Creative Thinking--Down Roads Less Traveled363
Intuitive Thought--Mental Shortcut? Or Dangerous Detour?367
Chapter 11Motivation and Emotion377
Motivation--Forces That Push and Pull378
Primary Motives and Homeostasis--Keeping the Home Fires Burning380
Hunger--Pardon Me, That's Just My Hypothalamus Growling381
Primary Motives Revisited--Thirst, Sex, and Pain388
Stimulus Drives--Skydiving, Horror Movies, and the Fun Zone390
Learned Motives--The Pursuit of Excellence392
Motives in Perspective--A View from the Pyramid395
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation--Pleasure or Obligation?396
Dissecting an Emotion--How Do You Feel?398
Physiology and Emotion--Arousal, Sudden Death, and Lying400
Expressing Emotions--Making Faces and Talking Bodies404
Theories of Emotion--Several Ways to Fear a Bear406
The Facial Feedback Hypothesis408
Chapter 12Health, Stress, and Coping416
Health Psychology--Here's to Your Good Health417
Stress--Thrill or Threat?422
Frustration--Blind Alleys and Lead Balloons426
Conflict--Yes, No, Yes, No, Yes, No, Well, Maybe428
Psychological Defense--Mental Karate?431
Learned Helplessness--Is There Hope?433
Stress and Health--Unmasking a Hidden Killer437
Chapter 13Personality454
Do You Have Personality?455
The Trait Approach--Describe Yourself in 18,000 Words or Less459
Psychoanalytic Theory--Id Came to Me in a Dream465
Learning Theories of Personality--Habit I Seen You Before?469
Humanistic Theory--Peak Experiences and Personal Growth474
Carl Rogers's Self Theory476
Personality Theories--Overview and Comparison479
Personality Assessment--Psychological Yardsticks479
Projective Tests of Personality--Inkblots and Hidden Plots485
Sudden Murderers--A Research Example486
Chapter 14Abnormal Psychology493
Normality--What Is Normal?494
Classifying Mental Disorders--Problems by the Book496
Personality Disorders--Blueprints for Maladjustment502
Sexual Deviance--Trench Coats, Whips, Leather, and Lace504
Anxiety-Based Disorders--When Anxiety Rules506
Four Pathways to Anxiety and Disorder512
Psychosis--Life in the Shadow of Madness514
Delusional Disorders--An Enemy behind Every Tree516
Schizophrenia--Shattered Reality518
Mood Disorders--Peaks and Valleys524
Treatment--Medical Approaches529
Community Mental Health Programs--Hope and Help for Many534
Chapter 15Therapies542
Psychotherapy--Getting Better by the Hour543
Origins of Therapy--Bored Skulls and Hysteria on the Couch543
Psychoanalysis--Expedition into the Unconscious545
Humanistic Therapies--Restoring Human Potential548
Behavior Therapy--Healing by Learning553
Aversion Therapy--A Little Pain Goes a Long Way554
Desensitization--Who's Afraid of a Big, Bad Hierarchy?555
Operant Principles--All the World Is a Skinner Box?559
Non-Reinforcement and Extinction--Time Out in the Attention Game559
Reinforcement and Token Economies--The Target Is Health560
Cognitive Therapy--Think Positive!561
Group Therapy--People Who Need People564
Psychotherapy--An Overview566
Chapter 16Gender and Sexuality580
Sexual Development--Circle One: XX or XY?581
Sexual Behavior--Mapping the Erogenous Zone591
Sexual Orientation--Who Do You Love?595
Human Sexual Response--Sexual Interactions597
Attitudes and Sexual Behavior--Choice, Risk, and Responsibility600
Chapter 17Social Behavior615
Humans in a Social Context--People, People, Everywhere616
Personal Space--Invisible Boundaries618
The Need for Affiliation--Come Together620
Interpersonal Attraction--Social Magnetism621
Love--Intimacy, Passion, and Commitment625
Social Perception--Behind the Mask628
Social Influence--Follow the Leader631
Obedience--Would You Electrocute a Stranger?633
Compliance--A Foot in the Door635
Attitude Change--Why the "Seekers" Went Public641
Prejudice--Attitudes That Injure647
Intergroup Conflict--The Roots of Prejudice648
Aggression--The World's Most Dangerous Animal653
Prosocial Behavior--Helping Others657
Chapter 18Applied Psychology0
Industrial/Organizational Psychology--Psychology at Work1
Communication at Work--Getting the Message Across8
Environmental Psychology--Life in the Big City10
Educational Psychology--An Instructive Topic19
Psychology and Law--Judging Juries20
Sports Psychology--The Athletic Mind23
Space Psychology--Life on the High Frontier25
AppendixStatistics
Glossary
References
Subject Index
Name Index
Credits

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