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In the span of only seventy years, Estonia first proclaimed its independence, was occupied and deprived of its sovereignty, saw many of its citizens deported, and yet managed to recover its independence. How did this small nation keep its language and traditions alive during half a century of occupation, and how did it maintain such a vivid sense of identity? For the first time in English, this book gives a comprehensive view of the events which shaped the destiny of contemporary Estonia. The Editor, Jean-Jacques Subrenat, has called upon an unusually broad spectrum of the best experts (in history, archeology, political science, genetics, literature), but also on some of the leaders who took part in the rebuilding of Estonia, to offer more than a history, rather a unique testimony on a nation reborn.
Estonia: Identity and Independence provides rare insight into the many aspects of a country whose location in Northern Europe, within the European Union, and as a NATO ally, but also as a close neighbour of Russia, deserves the attention of scholars, journalists, and informed readers today.
This volume includes a thorough chronology of Estonia (from prehistory to accession to the European Union), and a brief c.v. of each co-author.
Estonia: Identity and Independence is also available in three other languages
(Estonian, Russian, French).
About the Author
Jean-Jacques Subrenat (born 9 June 1940), worked at the CNRS, Centre for Scientific Research, in Paris (1967–1971), French diplomat (1972–). Permanent representative to the WEU in Brussels (1995–1998), Ambassador to Estonia (1998–2002), to Finland (2003–).
Table of Contents
Lennart MERI: Foreword
Jean-Jacques SUBRENAT: Introduction
Hando RUNNEL : A Very Ancient Nation
I. From the Origins to the Mid-19th Century
Richard VILLEMS: Marginalia on the Topic of Identity
Tarmo KULMAR: The Time of Shadows
Andrei HVOSTOV, Mart LAAR, Harri TIIDO: Historical Myth in National Identity: An Exchange of Ideas
Tiina KALA: Estonia from the 13th to the 16th Centuries
Margus LAIDRE: From the Reformation to National Awakening 1520-1850
II. The National Awakening and the Building Up of an Independent State
Ea JANSEN: The National Awakening of the Estonian Nation
Eero MEDIJAINEN: Estonia and the World
III. The Soviet Period (1940-1988)
Andres TARAND: The Soviet Period
Jaan KAPLINSKI, Jaan KROSS, Paul-Eerik RUMMO, Kalev KESKÜLA: Resistance, Scepticism and Homo Sovieticus: An Exchange of Opinions
Jaak ALLIK: The Strong People of Kalev Remained… (An Opinion)
Raimo RAAG: The National Identity and Culture of Estonians Living in the West 1944-1991
Toomas Hendrik ILVES: An Opinion
Mari-Ann KELAM: An Opinion
Liis KLAAR: The Estonian identity in Exile: An Opinion
Aino-Lepik von WIRÉN: An Opinion
Helga NŎU: An Opinion
IV. The “Singing Revolution” and Independence Regained (1988 to the Present)
Mart LAAR: The Restoration of Independence in Estonia
Tunne KELAM: An Opinion
Küllo ARJAKAS: Reflections on the Late 1980s and Early 1990s: An Opinion
Rein RAUD: The Conditions for a Multicultural Estonia
Sergei IVANOV, Jaan KAPLINSKI, Mart NUTT, David VSEVIOS, Harri TIIDO: The Pragmatic and the “National” Approach to the Question of the Russian-Speaking Population in Estonia: An Exchange of Ideas
Jüri LUIK, Jean-Jacques SUBRENAT, Harri TIIDO: Globalisation, Integration into European Structures and their Effect on National Identity and Culture: Discussion
Chronology (compiled by Lore Listra)