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European Democracies / Edition 8

European Democracies / Edition 8

by Markus Crepaz


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European Democracies / Edition 8

Organized thematically rather than country-by-country, European Democracies is an introduction to the politics and governments of Western, Central, and Eastern Europe. Considering the countries of Europe from both the "supranational" level of the European Union and the "subnational" level of regions, this text employs a comparative approach to survey issues ranging from parties and policy to democratization and globalization. These issues are illustrated with in-depth examples from a variety of European countries as well as examples from politics in the United States. Throughout, Markus Crepaz and J?rg Steiner treat Europe as a single but diverse entity and ask students what European politics can teach them about politics in their own country.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900205854782
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 02/29/2012
Edition description: NE
Pages: 384
Product dimensions: 5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.90(d)

About the Author

Markus M.L. Crepaz is Professor of Political Science at the University of Georgia in the School of Public and International Affairs. He is currently the Head of the Department of International Affairs. He was born and raised in Austria. After attending the University of Salzburg from 1982 to 1986, he began his graduate study at the University of California, San Diego, where he completed his Ph.D. in 1992. He has published numerous articles on electoral engineering, European politics, corporatism, and the impact of political institutions on a host of policy outcomes. His current research focuses on the effects of increasing immigration on the willingness of European publics to continue funding the welfare state. His latest book is entitled Trust beyond Borders: Immigration, Identity and the Welfare State in Modern Societies and was published by the University of Michigan Press in 2008. Having lived in both worlds, the Old and the New, gives him a unique perspective from which to teach and research European politics in the United States.

Jürg Steiner is professor emeritus at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the University of Bern in Switzerland. He held a 2003-2004 chair position at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy. He is the winner of several teaching awards. His most recent publication is Foundation of Deliberative Democracy, Cambridge University Press, 2012. Currently, he works on the potential for deliberative politics in deeply divided societies. Steiner is a Swiss citizen who for 40 years divides his time between the United States and Switzerland.

Table of Contents

Preface xi

About the Authors xvii

Chapter 1 Becoming Modern in Europe and America: Different History, Different Politics 1

How Do We Know that Europe Is Different? 1

Explaining Differences: The Impact of History, Geography, and Culture 8

Structure of the Book 12

Key Terms 14

Discussion Questions 14

Notes 14

Chapter 2 Political Parties 16

Political Parties-The "Children of Democracy" 16

Functions of Political Parties 17

Differences between Political Parties and Interest Groups 19

Socialists 20

Liberals 25

Conservatives 26

Christian Democrats 30

New Radical Right 31

Greens 36

Regional Parties 40

A Multidimensional Political Space 41

Membership in Political Parties 43

Stability and Change of Parties and Party Systems 44

Key Terms 45

Discussion Questions 46

Notes 46

Chapter 3 Parliaments: How They Are Elected and How They Work 48

Winner-Take-All: Great Britain 49

Party List Proportional Representation: The Netherlands 52

Personalized Proportional Representation: Switzerland, Ireland, and Germany 55

Switzerland 55

Ireland 57

Germany 60

Changing the Electoral System: France and Italy 62

France 62

Italy 67

Voter Turnout 72

Legislative Behavior 73

Key Terms 74

Discussion Questions 74

Notes 75

Chapter 4 Cabinet Formation and Heads of State 76

Single-Party Majority Cabinets 78

Minimal-Winning Cabinets 85

Oversized Cabinets 89

Minority Cabinets 93

Cabinet Instability 94

Semipresidential Systems 100

Advantages and Disadvantages of Parliamentary and Presidential Systems 107

Advantages and Disadvantages of Presidentialism 107

Advantages and Disadvantages of Parliamentarism 109

Heads of State 110

Monarchial Head of State 110

Civilian Heads of State 111

Key Terms 112

Discussion Questions 113

Notes 113

Chapter 5 Courts 115

Great Britain 116

Switzerland 118

Germany 119

France 121

Hungary 122

Key Terms 122

Discussion Questions 123

Notes 123

Chapter 6 Federalism and Referenda 124

Switzerland: Prototypical Case of a Federalist Country with a Strong Referendum 124

European Trend toward Federalism and Referenda 129

Arguments against Federalism and Referenda 133

Key Terms 135

Discussion Questions 135

Notes 135

Chapter 7 Social Movements 136

Environmental Movement 136

Peace, Third-World, and Antiglobalization Movements 138

Women's Movement 140

The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Movement 143

Youth Movement 147

Key Terms 151

Discussion Questions 151

Notes 152

Chapter 8 The State and Economic Interest Groups 153

The State as a Political Actor 153

Economic Interest Groups 155

Pluralism and Corporatism 157

The Theory of Corporatism 160

The Future of Corporatism 163

Comparing European and American Responses to the Great Meltdown of 2008 165

The Paternalist Role of the State 168

Attitudes toward Risk 169

Class Consciousness 169

Civil Service in Europe 169

Family, History Matters 169

Key Terms 170

Discussion Questions 170

Notes 171

Chapter 9 Policy Outcomes 172

Explaining Variation in Poverty Rates 175

Explaining Further Policy Outcomes 179

Key Terms 192

Discussion Questions 192

Notes 192

Chapter 10 The End of the Cold War 193

Classical Marxism 194

Neo-Marxism 196

Communism in Central and Eastern Europe 200

Poland 202

Hungary 203

East Germany 204

Communism in Western Europe 207

Key Terms 210

Discussion Questions 210

Notes 210

Chapter 11 Transitions to Democracy 211

The Federal Republic of Germany After 1945 211

Italy After 1945 213

Spain After 1975 214

Hungary After 1989 215

Poland After 1989 219

Ukraine in 2004 224

Explanations 226

Russia 227

Key Terms 227

Discussion Questions 228

Notes 229

Chapter 12 Nationalism and Ethnicity 230

War in Former Yugoslavia 231

Northern Ireland 239

Basque Country 240

Immigration 244

Sports Events 245

More Benign Aspects 245

Key Terms 248

Discussion Questions 248

Notes 249

Chapter 13 Power Sharing in Deeply Divided Societies 250

Development of the Theory of Power Sharing 250

Critique of the Theory of Power Sharing 254

Northern Ireland 260

Former Czechoslovakia 266

Former Yugoslavia 270

Power Sharing and Deliberation 277

Normative Evaluation of Power Sharing 278

Key Terms 280

Discussion Questions 280

Notes 280

Chapter 14 The European Union 283

History of European Integration 283

Council of Ministers 286

European Council 287

European Commission 288

European Parliament 289

European Court of Justice 293

European Bureaucracy 296

What Does the European Union Do? 296

Agricultural Policy 297

Regional and Development Policy 298

Common Currency-the Euro 298

Continued Expansion: Where Does "Europe" End? 299

Turkey's EU Membership Prospects 300

A Constitution for Europe? "Non" and "Nee" 302

Key Terms 306

Discussion Questions 306

Notes 307

Chapter 15 Globalization and European Democracies 308

What Is Globalization? 309

How Should Globalization Be Measured? 313

The Challenges of Globalization for European Democracies 315

The Welfare State and Globalization 317

Immigration and Globalization 319

Globalization and the Fragility of Community 323

Is Globalization a Threat or an Opportunity for European Democracies? 324

Key Terms 325

Discussion Questions 325

Notes 326

Index 327

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