These are the proceedings of an international symposium, awarded a prize by the city of Vienna, the Vienna Economic Chamber, and the Vienna Convention Bureau. The issues dealt with in the articles offer different viewpoints, from the politics and aesthetics of two-part singing in southern Portugal to the new considerations of diaphony in Southeast Europe. In addition, unknown multipart singing styles in the scholarly research are treated, as for example Spain and France mainland. The inclusion of the Balkan countries has been fundamental in order for them to be perceived as an indispensable part of Europe, which is still not necessarily the case. With summaries in German.