This volume, the result of the Urban Institute's evaluation of the Washington State Family Independence Program (FIP), examines a state's effort to implement a welfare reform program designed to help welfare families become more economically self-sufficient. The implementation of FIP was expected, relative to the regular Aid to Families with Dependent Children program, to increase participation in education, training, and employment, which would in turn reduce welfare participation. FIP did not achieve these results. Relative to traditional welfare in the comparison sites, FIP had little or no impact on education and training; it reduced employment and earnings a little; and it increased welfare participation sunstantially. The authors present the data gathered by the Urban Institute over the past five years and analyze the reasons for FIP's failure to meet its original goals.