Evaporative Air Conditioning Handbook

Evaporative Air Conditioning Handbook

by John Watt

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1986)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461293873
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 10/01/2011
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1986
Pages: 456
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.04(d)

Table of Contents

Evaporative Cooling Types.- Long Scientific Neglect.- Aid to Industrial Productivity.- Coming Triumphs.- Omissions.- Abbreviations.- Metric Equivalents.- II. History of Evaporative Cooling.- Primitive Evaporative Cooling.- Modern Evaporative Cooling.- Eastern Types and History.- Western Types and Development.- Typical Indirect System Cooling Towers.- An Early Plate-Type Indirect Cooler.- Early Drip Coolers.- Mass Production Begins.- Historical Importance.- The Industry Consolidates.- Industry Achievements.- Review Questions.- III. Theory of Direct Evaporative Cooling.- Heat and Mass Transfer.- Sensible and Latent Heat.- Adiabatic Saturation.- Limits of Direct Evaporative Cooling.- Humidity Measurement.- Dry-Bulb and Wet-Bulb Temperatures.- Psychrometric Charts.- Other Psychrometric Properties.- Psychrometric Processes.- Ideal Evaporative Cooling.- Ordinary Evaporative Cooling.- Saturating Efficiency.- Evaporative Cooling Process in Rooms.- Washed-Air Discharge Outdoors.- Indoor Relative Humidity.- Review Questions.- IV. Comfort Aspects of Air Conditioning.- The Organic Thermodynamics of Comfort.- Heat Dissipated by People.- The Body’s Means of Heat Dissipation.- Bodily Governing Factors.- Organic Temperature Controls and Limits.- Architectural and Psychological Factors.- The Effect of Building Size and Mass upon Indoor Comfort.- Effective Temperatures and Comfort Zones.- Comfort Charts, Limited Pertinence.- Comfort Chart Adaption to Other Conditions.- An Evaporative Cooling Comfort Zone.- A Proposed Evaporative Cooling Comfort Chart.- Nomograph for Rapid Calculating of Evaporative Cooling Results.- Recommended Summer Indoor Conditions.- Adjustment for Radiant Heat.- Permissible Relative Humidities.- Permissible Air Motion with Evaporative Cooling.- Fresh Air Requirements.- Air Cleaning.- Review Questions.- V. Geographic Range and Evaporative Cooling.- Other Factors Than Humidity.- Traditional Design Temperatures.- Coincident Dry- and Wet-Bulb Temperatures.- Use of Diurnal Temperature Swings.- U.S. Evaporative Cooling Coincident Design Temperatures.- Selected Canadian Cooling Coincident Design Temperatures.- Climatic Considerations and the Need for Cooling.- International Comparative Weather Data.- International Direct Evaporative Cooling Applicability.- Achieving Comfort, Process Path Vectors.- Wet-Bulb Temperatures that Permit Vectors to Achieve Comfort Zones.- Indirect Coolers and Geographic Range.- Review Questions.- VI. Drip-Type Direct Evaporative Coolers.- Cabinet Design.- Fans and Motors.- Motor Ratings.- Pad-Holders.- Pad Materials.- Water Distribution Systems.- Recirculating Pumps.- Pad Thickness and Density.- Air Velocity in Pads.- Water Flow in Pads.- Review Questions.- VII. Drip Cooler Progress.- Pad Sagging.- Pad Clogging.- Pad Scaling.- Bleed-Off and Blow-Down.- Chemical Water Treatment.- Pad Deterioration.- Odor Problems.- Corrosion Resistance.- Galvanized Steel Coolers.- Stainless Steel Coolers.- Pressure Molded Plastic Coolers.- Another Molded Plastic Cooler.- Fiber Glass Coolers.- Composite Australian Coolers.- Exaggerated U.S. Performance Data.- Controls, Idealized Drip Cooler Controls.- Solar Connections.- Solar Drip Coolers.- Solar Tax Credits.- Review Questions.- VIII. Other Small Evaporative Coolers.- Portable Drip Coolers.- Spot Coolers.- Exhaust-Type Window-Pad Coolers.- The New Roller Pad Coolers.- Automobile Evaporative Coolers.- Modern Vehicular Coolers.- The Fog Chamber Coolers.- A New Small Rotary Drum Cooler.- Outdoor Fog-Type Cooling.- Small Rigid-Media Coolers.- Solar-Powered Small Coolers.- The Future.- Review Questions.- IX. Commercial Direct Evaporative Coolers.- Slinger-Type Coolers.- Adaptability.- The Saturation Pads or “Filters,” Pad Wetting Devices and Problems.- Pump-and-Nozzle Pad Spraying.- Air-Cleaning Effect.- The Proper Name for Such Coolers.- Cooling Effect, Cooler Construction and Materials.- Advantages and Disadvantages.- Rotary Pad Evaporative Coolers.- The Rotors, Antiscaling and Anticlogging Features.- Rotary Cooler Advantages and Disadvantages.- Rotary Drum Coolers.- Review Questions.- X. Combined Evaporative Cooling Systems.- “Add-On” Systems.- Duct Size Problems.- Add-On System Changeover.- “Piggy-Back” Units.- A Residential Unit.- “Make-up Air” Units.- A Heat Recirculation Method.- The Future.- Review Questions.- XI. Air-Washer Evaporative Coolers.- Commercial Air Washers.- Construction.- Heating-Cooling Coils.- Airflow.- Spray Arrangements.- Nozzles.- Other Aspects.- New Developments.- Cooling Performance.- Advantages and Disadvantages.- Cell-Type Air Washers.- Construction, Capillary Cells.- Wetting Devices.- Air Cleaning Effect.- Evaporative Cooling Performance.- Trends.- Review Questions.- XII. The Rigid-Media Coolers.- The New Materials.- Rigid-Media Performance.- Large Rigid-Media Coolers.- Large Cooler Uses.- Exhaust-Type Coolers.- Small Rigid-Media Coolers.- Add-On Pads.- Vertical Counter-Flow Coolers.- Review Questions.- XIII. Industrial Plant Cooling.- Industrial Trends.- True Costs of Industrial Cooling.- The Cooling Opportunity.- Refrigerative Factory Cooling.- Ventilative Cooling.- Circulating Fans.- Evaporative Cooling versus Ventilative Cooling.- Industrial Evaporative Cooling.- Space or Room or Area Cooling.- Central Station Systems.- Spot or Person Cooling.- Spot Cooling Outlets.- Spot Cooling Accessories.- a Special Case.- Rules for Industrial Evaporative Cooling.- Cooling Load Control.- Cooling System Design.- Space-Cooling Comfort.- Spot-Cooling Comfort.- Combined Systems.- The Future.- Review Questions.- XVI. Textile Mill Evaporative Cooling.- History.- Materials and Processes.- Primary Mill Humidification Systems.- Direct Humidification.- Wet Ducts.- Indirect Humidification.- Atomizing Power Consumption.- Conversion to Evaporative Cooling.- Wet Duct Cooling.- Dry Duct Cooling.- New Looms.- The New Textiles.- Central Station Evaporative Cooling.- Cooling Performance.- Typical Mill Cooling Problems.- Heating.- Finishing Mills.- Localized Exhausting.- Makeup Air Supply.- Finishing Mill Evaporative Cooling.- Heating Finishing Mills.- The Future in Textile Mills.- Indirect Cooling.- Review Questions.- XV. Animal and Poultry Cooling.- Cooling Animals.- Swine Cooling.- Swine Cooling Systems.- Controls.- Outdoor Swine Cooling.- Cattle Cooling.- Economic Results.- Cow Barns, etc..- Poultry Cooling.- Cooling Needs.- General Results.- a Drip-Cooler Experiment.- Exhaust Fan.- a Slot Experiment.- Economic Results.- Current Drip-Cooler Use.- Alternative Systems.- Special Animal Houses.- Systematic Ventilating and Heating.- Pure Ventilating Systems.- Evaporative Cooling Special Animal Houses.- Other Animals.- Review Questions.- XVI. Greenhouse and Produce Cooling.- Tomatoes.- Other Food Plants.- Specific Benefits.- Flower Raising.- Greenhouse Cooling Systems.- Wall Panel and Fan Systems.- Wall Pads.- Temperature Effects.- Heating and Ventilation.- Controls.- Food Storage arid Processing.- Potatoes.- Citrus Fruits.- Other Products.- Review Questions.- XVII. Direct Cooler Rating and Sizing.- Performance Measurement.- Proposed Evaporative Cooler Rating Units.- Cooling Performance by Weighing.- Sensible Heat Regain.- Conventional Calculations.- Rating Units Adjusted for Weather.- Economy and Power Consumption.- EERs and SEERs and Direct Evaporative EERs.- Air-Cooling or Machine EERs and Evaporative Cooling Units.- Direct Cooler Ratings.- Comparison of Coolers.- Useful Cooling and Comfort.- Useful Cooling Chart.- Comfort Conditions.- Washed Air Entry to Rooms.- Special Uses.- A Sample Calculation.- Rough Cooler Sizing.- Better Cooler Sizing.- Proposed Best Cooler Sizing Method.- Washed-Air Temperature Gains Indoors.- Related Cooler Sizing.- Duct Use and Sizing.- Power Consumption Estimates.- Illustrative Sizing Problem.- Review Questions.- XVIII. Direct Evaporative Cooler Installation.- Cooler Location.- House Coolers.- Commercial Buildings.- Duct Design.- Connection to Heating Systems.- Washed Air Distribution Aims.- Ceiling Outlets.- Wall Outlets.- Hall Plenum Systems.- Basement Plenum Systems.- Low Outside Wall Diffusers.- Direct Evaporative Radiant Cooling Systems.- Window Mountings.- Effect of Washed Air Distribution on Cooler Sizing.- Washed Air Indoor Travel.- Washed Air Discharge Outdoors.- The Up-Duct Opportunity.- Building Insulation.- Insolation.- Controls.- Review Questions.- XIX. Precoolers for Refrigeration Condensers.- Compressor Efficiency Gains.- Condenser Air Precoolers.- Commercial Refrigeration Precoolers.- Precoolers for AirConditioning Condensers.- Available Precoolers and Energy Savings.- Very Small Condensers.- Solar-Powered Precoolers.- Review Questions.- XX. Indirect Evaporative Cooling Systems.- History.- Simple Dry-Surface Tower-and-Coil Systems.- Related Problems.- “Closed-System” Cooling Towers.- Regenerative Dry-Surface Systems.- The Gafford System.- Plate-Type Heat-Exchanger Systems.- The Pennington Heat-Storage-Wheel System.- Tubular Indirect Cooling Systems.- Two-Stage Indirect Cooling.- Advantages of Staging.- Direct Evaporative Second Stages.- The Kennedy Two-Stage Cooler.- Indirect Radiant Cooling.- Review Questions.- XXI. Modern Plate-Type Indirect Cooling.- Terminology.- Staging and Climatic Adaption.- The Author’s Research.- Plate-Type Background.- A Modern Plate-Type Cooler.- Another Plate-Type Cooler.- Australian Plate-Type Coolers.- The Dimpled Surfaces.- Performance.- The Pescod Coolers.- Their Design and Performance.- A New Plate-Type Cooler.- Its Plates.- Analysis and Performance.- Solar Powering.- Scale Prevention.- Review Questions.- XXII. Other Modern Indirect Cooling.- Simple Tower-and-Coil Systems.- Open Loop Indirect Systems.- Cooling Tower Stored Cooling Systems.- Tubular Indirect Coolers.- Multi-Stage Performance.- Another Tubular Indirect Cooler.- a Vertical-Tube Cooler.- Applications and Performance.- Precooling Performance.- Savings Staged with Refrigeration.- Thermal Storage Wheel Coolers.- Heat Exchange Wheels.- Leakage Problems.- Wheel-Type Indirect Cooling.- Winter Heat-Recovery Service.- Review Questions.- XXIII. Experimental Indirect Cooling.- Rock-Bed Indirect Cooling.- Bed Sizing.- Cooling the Rock Beds.- Charging Times.- Cooling the Rooms.- A Two-Stage System.- Evaluation.- A Semicontinuous System.- An Australian Precedent.- Passive Indirect Cooling.- The Cool-Pool System.- The Water Columns.- Water Circulation.- Performance.- Evaluation.- Desiccant Indirect Cooling.- Desiccants.- Open and Closed Cycles.- Desiccant Wheels.- Use in Evaporative Cooling.- The Drying Process.- Regeneration.- Cooling the Hot.- Dry Air.- The Principal Cooling Cycles.- The Solar Connection.- Performance.- The Future.- On the Market.- Review Questions.- XXIV. The Economics of Evaporative Cooling.- Power Cost Trends.- EER Efficiency Ratings.- The Gordian Report.- Reported Power Savings over Refrigeration.- Owning and Life-Cycle Costs.- The Economy of Other Direct Coolers.- The Cost Comparison Problem.- A Route for Comparisons.- Demonstration.- Sample Calculation for Direct Cooling.- Sample Calculation for Indirect-Direct Cooling.- The Economy of Indirect Evaporative Cooling Systems.- The General Case.- Summer Peak Load Savings.- Summary.- Review Questions.- ASHRAE SI (Metric) Psychrometric Chart.- ASHRAE SI (Metric) Conversion Table.- Report that Evaporative Cooling Does Not Carry Legionnaires’ Disease.- Dedications and Credits.- Product Directory.- Vitas..

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