Examkrackers MCAT Organic Chemistry: 4th Edition

Examkrackers MCAT Organic Chemistry: 4th Edition

by Jonathan Orsay

Paperback(Older Edition)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781893858275
Publisher: Osote Publishing
Publication date: 02/01/2003
Series: Examkrackers
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 148
Product dimensions: 8.50(w) x 11.00(h) x 0.30(d)

Read an Excerpt

The aldehyde products can be easily distinguished from the ketone products by the lone hydrogen. The hemi products can be distinguished from the acetals and ketals because the hemi products both have alcohols while the full acetals and ketals don’t. Hemi formation is catalyzed by acid or base. In formation of acetal and ketal from the hemi-forms the hydroxyl group must be protonated to make a good leaving group, thus this part of the reaction is catalyzed by acid only.
Because acetals and ketals are unreactive toward bases, they are often used as blocking groups. In other words, a base would typically act as a nucleophile to attack an aldehyde or ketone at the carbonyl carbon, but the aldehyde or ketone can be temporarily changed to an acetal or ketal to prevent it from reacting with a base.

Table of Contents

Class Lectures
Lecture 1Molecular Structure1
Lecture 2Hydrocarbons, Alcohols, and Substitutions31
Lecture 3Carbonyls and Amines61
Lecture 4Biochemistry and Lab Techniques79
In-class Exams
Exam 1101
Exam 2109
Exam 3115
Exam 4123
Answers to In-class Exams
Answers130
Explanations to In-class Exams
Exam 1131
Exam 2133
Exam 3135
Exam 4142

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