Exclusion, Gender and Education: Case Studies from the Developing World

Exclusion, Gender and Education: Case Studies from the Developing World


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Girls have achieved remarkable increases in primary schooling over the past decade, yet millions are still not in school. In their previous book, Inexcusable Absence, Maureen A. Lewis and Marlaine E. Lockheed reported the startling new finding that nearly threequarters of the girls who are not in school belong to ethnic, religious, linguistic, racial, or other minorities. In this companion volume, they further analyze the determinants of school enrollment, completion, and learning in seven countries: the highly heterogeneous populations of Laos, China, Pakistan, India, and Guatemala and the homogeneous populations of Bangladesh and Tunisia. The authors find that in ethnically and linguistically diverse populations, minority groups—minority girls in particular— lag significantly behind the majority population in school attendance, while highly homogeneous populations like Bangladesh and Tunisia have successfully integrated girls into school on a par with boys. By increasing understanding about the major impediments to universal primary education, Exclusion, Gender and Education provides valuable new knowledge to those who are working to bring gender equity to the education systems of poor countries.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781933286228
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
Publication date: 10/09/2007
Pages: 242
Product dimensions: 5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.70(d)

About the Author

Maureen A. Lewis is an adviser to the Human Development vice president of the World Bank and a nonresident fellow at the Center for Global Development. She was formerly chief economist of the Human Development Network of the World Bank. Marlaine E. Lockheed is a visiting fellow at the Center for Global Development. She served as director for education, ad interim, for the World Bank from 2000 to 2001, and managed units responsible for education strategy and lending in the Middle East and North Africa.

Table of Contents

Preface     ix
Acknowledgements     xiii
Social exclusion: The emerging challenge in girls' education   Maureen A. Lewis   Marlaine E. Lockheed     1
Social exclusion and education     5
Evidence on exclusion and schooling in developing countries     9
Cross-country evidence on girls' education and exclusion     16
Policy implications and areas for further research     23
References     25
Ethnic and linguistic diversity and lower school enrollment     29
Girls in Lao PDR: Ethnic affiliation, poverty, and location   Elizabeth M. King   Dominique van de Walle     31
Educational attainment and adult literacy: Uneven progress over time     32
Educational inequality among children now in school     38
Results of the model: Explaining school enrollment and attainment     54
Conclusions and policy implications     62
Annex to Chapter 2     64
References     69
Girls in Gansu, China: Expectations and aspirations for secondary schooling   Emily Hannum   Jennifer Adams     71
Girls, boys, and educational access in China: historical context     72
Why do gender disparities exist? Social sciencetheories     73
Does gender still matter for access to basic education?     77
Measuring gender disparities and their sources     77
Conclusions and implications     94
Annex to Chapter 3     96
References     96
Rural girls in Pakistan: Constraints of policy and culture   Cynthia Lloyd   Cem Mete   Monica Grant     99
Education in Pakistan     100
Girls' disadvantage in enrollment: existing evidence and data     104
Are new schools in rural areas addressing the needs of the most disadvantaged girls?     107
What factors affect girls' enrollment in rural Pakistan?     112
Conclusions and policy implications     116
References     117
Girls in India: Poverty, location, and social disparities   Kin Bing Wu   Pete Goldschmidt   Christy Kim Boscardin   Mehtabul Azam     119
Enrollment and achievement in primary school     120
Gender and social disparities in access to secondary education     129
What determines student achievement in secondary school?     132
Conclusions and policy implications     139
Annex to Chapter 5     140
References      141
Indigenous girls in Guatemala: Poverty and location   Kelly Hallman   Sara Peracca   Jennifer Catino   Marta Julia Ruiz     145
Data used     147
Who goes to school? The roles of ethnicity, gender, poverty, and location     149
Why don't girls go to school?     165
Indigenous girls' schooling experiences     171
Policy implications for getting girls into school     172
References     174
Less diversity and higher enrollment     177
Rural Bangladesh: Sound policies, evolving gender norms, and family strategies   Sidney Ruth Schuler     179
Policy and program interventions in the education sector     185
Policies, programs, and opportunities for women in other sectors     187
Qualitative data sources     187
Evolving gender norms     188
Local perspectives on policy and program interventions     192
Family strategies regarding female education, employment, and marriage     194
Limits and precariousness of changes underway     199
Conclusions     200
References     201
Tunisia: Strong central policies for gender equity   Marlaine E. Lockheed   Cem Mete      205
Education in Tunisia     209
The data     210
What accounts for gender equity at the early stages of basic education?     211
When and how do gender inequalities start to emerge?     220
Conclusions     224
Annex to Chapter 8     226
References     228
Index     231

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