A top-seller for over 35 years with over one million copies sold, this lab manual represents by far the best collection of photos of rocks and mineralsand one of the best compilations of exercisesavailable. Provides exercises using maps, aerial photos, satellite imagery, and other materials. Encompasses all the major geologic processes as well as the identification of rocks and minerals. Features new maps and exciting images in every section of the manual. Expands all introductory discussion sections to provide a more comprehensive foundation. Offers an unrivaled collection of photographs, maps, and illustrations. Is published in anoversize book trim size to provide space for larger illustrations, maps, and photographs. A useful self-study tool for anyone interested in learning more about geology.
|Edition description:||12TH SPRL|
|Product dimensions:||9.90(w) x 11.90(h) x 0.80(d)|
Table of Contents
1. Minerals and Crystal Growth
2. Mineral Identification
3. Igneous Rocks
4. Sedimentary Rocks
5. Metamorphic Rocks
6. Geologic Time—Relative Dating
7. Maps and Aerial Photos
8. Landforms of the United States
9. Stream Erosion and Deposition
10. Mass Movement
11. Groundwater and Karst Topography
12. Valley Glaciation
13. Continental Glaciation
14. Shoreline Processes
15. Eolian Processes
16. Structural Geology
18. Plate Tectonics
19. Divergent Plate Boundaries
20. Transform Plate Boundaries
21. Convergent Plate Boundaries
22. Plumes and Hotspots
23. Planetary Geology
This is the twelfth edition of this laboratory manual, which was first published in 1964. During the intervening 40 years, our knowledge of the forces that shape our planet has grown exponentially. The revolutionary theory of plate tectonics is firmly established and provides a framework for learning about Earth's dynamics and the interrelationships between moving tectonic plates, mountain building, the origin of ocean basins, and the evolution of continents.
New technology permits us to see Earth from space, image the ocean floor, and measure directly the motion of tectonic plates. We can see in one synoptic view the surface of an entire continent and map ocean currents, temperatures, and vegetation from satellites orbiting in space. During no other period has there been so much exploration and development of new knowledge about Earth. For this reason, we have revised this manual in an attempt to incorporate the new theories and discoveries.
The objectives we set forth in the first edition still stand:
- To give students experience in examining geologic data and formulating hypotheses to explain observed facts.
- To provide an opportunity to continue laboratory-type work outside of class so students can prepare adequately for lab sessions and review work independently.
- To give laboratory instructors maximum latitude in their instruction by providing abundant material from which they can select for their own specific objectives.
NEW TO THIS EDITION
The most important change in this edition is the significant expansion of the introductory sections to each exercise, making the exercises more self-sufficient and less reliant on outside textual references or teacher instruction. You will notice that the manual is longer than in previous editions; this is due to the additional background information. Every exercise has been carefully updated and checked for accuracy. In addition, we have focused on the quality of the questions, rewording and refining them for clarity. Continuing a trend developed over previous editions, we have made extensive use of new computer-generated shaded relief maps, new photographs, and new remote-sensing images. We have, however, retained many of the classic maps and aerial photographs that have served effectively as standard exercises for many years.
Rocks and Minerals
Most of the photographs of rocks and minerals are the same as those used in the previous edition, but some have been replaced where photographs of better specimens were obtainable. This material is intended as reference material for comparison with laboratory specimens. Photographs, of course, can never replace study of actual hand specimens, but they are useful as a guide and reference in the study of physical properties of minerals and textures of rocks.
Maps, Aerial Photographs, and Remote Sensing Images
Maps, aerial photographs, and various types of remote sensing images are the fundamental tools of geologic research and are naturally the basic materials in laboratory work of physical geology. The advances in geology during the last several decades have brought about profound changes in the making of maps. As a result of the space program, we now have sophisticated satellite imagery of Earth's surface and radar images that can "see through" clouds and vegetation cover. With remote sensing, we can also see the detailed landscape of the ocean floor and recognize features as small as a submerged boat. We can observe what was once unseen, and we can view the surface features of our planet from exciting new perspectives. Landsat images of Earth can be enhanced by the computerenlarged, manipulated in tone and color, and even reconstructed to produce stereoscopic images. In addition, most of the United States has been photographed with high-altitude infrared photography, and radar images have been made of large areas of North America. These exciting new images are the basic data for many of the exercises in the twelfth edition.
Perhaps the most significant recent advance in mapmaking has been the development of digital shaded relief maps that show the surface features of Earth in relief and remarkable detail. Since graphic representations of Earth's surface features are fundamental to studying and understanding geology, we introduce students to these new maps and images and involve them in the interpretation of the geologic processes revealed by each.
We have retained the series of diagrams illustrating the major structural features and their outcrop patterns. Portions of the geologic map of the United States have been retained from previous editions, and new maps, radar images, and computer-enhanced Landsat images have been added in the problems section.
The theory of plate tectonics has influenced every aspect of geology and has focused our attention on the global aspects of the science. To give students experience in analyzing geologic features on a global scale, we include a large physiographic map of Earth that serves as a basis for exercises in plate tectonics, major structural features of the continents, and geology of the ocean floor.
Seismology and Earth's Interior
We have retained the exercise in seismology that introduces students to the way geologists study Earth's interior. Problems in seismic stratigraphy and the study of shallow geologic structures give students a chance to work with seismic records. This exercise also includes studies of P and S wave shadow zones so students can see how scientists determine the nature of Earth's deep internal structure. In addition, we include an exercise utilizing interferometric maps, enabling students to study surface deformation associated with earthquakes.
The exploration of the planets has added yet another dimension to the study of Earth because it permits us to compare and contrast the geologic systems of other planetary bodies with those of our planet. We have revised this section to emphasize detailed examples of the new images of Mars, permitting us to see features never seen before. The study of other planetary bodies serves as contrasts to the geologic systems on Earth.