Exoplanets: Detection, Formation, Properties, Habitability / Edition 1

Exoplanets: Detection, Formation, Properties, Habitability / Edition 1

by John Mason
ISBN-10:
3540740074
ISBN-13:
9783540740070
Pub. Date:
03/11/2008
Publisher:
Springer Berlin Heidelberg

Hardcover

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Overview

Exoplanets: Detection, Formation, Properties, Habitability / Edition 1

The first exoplanet was discovered only in 1995, but over 200 exoplanetary systems are now known and the field continues to advance rapidly. This edited volume, with chapters authored by some of the most prominent scientists in the field, is an invaluable introduction and reference on all key aspects of exoplanet research.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783540740070
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 03/11/2008
Series: Springer Praxis Books
Edition description: 2008
Pages: 314
Product dimensions: 6.80(w) x 9.70(h) x 0.80(d)

Table of Contents


Editor's Preface xi List of contributors xix
1 Detection Methods and Properties of Known Exoplanets Patrick G. J. Irwin 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Detection of Extrasolar Planets 1
1.2.1 Radial Velocity Detections 2
1.2.2 Astrometry 4
1.2.3 Transit Detections 4
1.2.4 Microlensing 6
1.3 Properties of Observed Extrasolar Planets 7
1.4 Sensitivity and Future Methods for Detection of Extrasolar Planets 12
1.4.1 Transit Programmes 13
1.4.2 Direct Optical Detection 14
1.5 Conclusions 16 References 17
2 Doppler Exoplanet Surveys: From Single Object to Multiple Objects Jian Ge 21
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 Description of the Doppler Method 21
2.2.1 The High Resolution Cross-Dispersed Echelle Method 22
2.2.2 The Dispersed Fixed-Delay Interferometer Method 25
2.3 Main Results from Single Object Doppler Planet Surveys 28
2.3.1 Main Conclusions on Giant Planets 29
2.3.2 New Super-Earth Mass Planet Results 30
2.4 Science Needs for Multiple Object Doppler Planet Surveys 30
2.5 Early Results from a Multi-Object Doppler Planet Survey 32
2.6 New Planet Science to be Addressed by Next Generation Multi-Object RV Planet Surveys 37
2.6.1 Giant Planet Science 37
2.6.2 Comparison with Other Planet Surveys 39
2.6.3 Super-Earth Mass Planets 40
2.7 Conclusions 41 References 42
3 Detection of Extrasolar Planets by Gravitational Microlensing David P. Bennett 47
3.1 Introduction 47
3.2 Gravitational Microlensing Theory 48
3.2.1 The Single Lens Case 48
3.2.2 Multiple Lens Systems 51
3.3 Planetary Microlensing Events 53
3.3.1 Planetary Caustic Perturbations 54
3.3.2 Stellar Caustic Perturbations 55
3.3.3 FiniteSource Effects 56
3.4 Planetary Parameters from Microlensing Events 58
3.4.1 Angular Einstein Radius 59
3.4.2 Microlensing Parallax 64
3.4.3 Planetary Orbits 64
3.5 Observational Programs 65
3.5.1 Early Observational Results 66
3.5.2 Microlensing Planet Detections 67
3.6 Future Programs 79
3.6.1 The Ultimate Exoplanet Census: Space-Based Microlensing 81 References 83
4 Formation and Evolution of Terrestrial Planets in Protoplanetary and Debris Disks George H. Rieke 89
4.1 Overview 89
4.2 Protoplanetary Disks 91
4.2.1 Disk Behaviour 91
4.2.2 Terrestrial Planet Formation 95
4.3 Debris Disks 97
4.3.1 Debris in the Solar System 98
4.3.2 Theoretical Background 99
4.3.3 Evolution 99
4.3.4 Spectral Energy Distributions 101
4.3.5 Imaging 103
4.3.6 Dependence on Stellar Mass, Metallicity, and Presence of Companions 105
4.4 Conclusion 105 References 106
5 The Brown Dwarf - Exoplanet Connection I. Neill Reid Stanimir A. Metchev 115
5.1 Introduction 115
5.2 Intrinsic Properties of Brown Dwarfs 117
5.2.1 Brown Dwarf Evolution 117
5.2.2 Observed Characteristics 120
5.2.3 Classifying Brown Dwarfs and Exoplanets 123
5.3 Observational Techniques for Identifying Low-mass Companions 124
5.3.1 Direct Imaging Surveys 124
5.3.2 Radial Velocity 127
5.3.3 Astrometric Surveys 129
5.3.4 Photometric Methods: Eclipsing Binaries 130
5.3.5 Summary 132
5.4 Brown Dwarfs as Companions 132
5.4.1 Stellar Binary Systems 133
5.4.2 Solar-Type Stars 135
5.4.3 Low Mass Binaries 136
5.4.4 Summary 139
5.5 Future Work 141
5.5.1 Direct Detection of Transiting Planets 142
5.5.2 High Contrast Imaging 142
5.5.3 Wide Field Imaging Surveys 143
5.5.4 Radial Velocity and Astrometric Surveys 145
5.5.5 Brown Dwarf Atmospheres 145
5.6 Summary and Conclusions 146 References 146
6 Close-Orbiting Exoplanets: Formation, Migration Mechanisms and Properties Hugh R.A. Jones James S. Jenkins John R. Barnes 153
6.1 Introduction 153
6.2 51 Pegasi as a Prototypical Close-Orbiting Exoplanet 155
6.3 Transit Discovery of Close-Orbiting Planets 156
6.4 Orbital Characteristics of Close-Orbiting Planets 156
6.4.1 Exoplanetary Mass Function 158
6.4.2 Exoplanetary Eccentricities 159
6.4.3 The Parent Stars of Close-Orbiting Exoplanets are Metal-Rich 161
6.5 Migration and Formation of Exoplanets 162
6.5.1 Planet Formation 163
6.5.2 Migration and Evolution 165
6.6 Close-Orbiting Planet Atmospheres 167
6.7 Composition 169
6.8 Future 169
6.8.1 The Hunt for Terrestrial Planets 170 References 172
7 Dynamics of Multiple Planet Systems Rory Barnes 177
7.1 Introduction 177
7.1.1 Planetary Orbits 178
7.1.2 Observational Constraints 178
7.2 Review of Orbital Theory 179
7.2.1 Analytical Methods 180
7.2.2 N-body Integrations 186
7.2.3 Dynamical Stability and Chaos 187
7.3 Dynamics of Individual Systems 189
7.4 Distributions of Dynamical Properties 194
7.4.1 Types of Interactions 195
7.4.2 Frequency of Mean Motion Resonances 195
7.4.3 Apsidal Motion 195
7.4.4 Proximity to Dynamical Instability 196
7.5 Conclusions 201 References 202
8 Searching for Exoplanets in the Stellar Graveyard Steinn Sigurdsson 209
8.1 The Discovery of Extrasolar Planets 209
8.2 Planets Around Pulsars 210
8.2.1 Pulsars 210
8.2.2 Searches for Planets 211
8.2.3 Origin of the Pulsar Planets 213
8.2.4 Planet in Messier 4 214
8.3 Planets Around White Dwarfs 216
8.3.1 Timing of Pulsating White Dwarfs 219
8.4 Future Prospects 220 References 221
9 Formation, Dynamical Evolution, and Habitability of Planets in Binary Star Systems Nader Haghighipour 223
9.1 Introduction 223
9.2 Dynamical Evolution and Stability 227
9.2.1 Stability of S-type Orbits 229
9.2.2 Stability of P-type Orbits 234
9.3 Planet Formation in Binaries 236
9.4 Habitability 246
9.5 Future Prospects 251 References 252
10 Planetary Environmental Signatures for Habitability and Life Victoria S. Meadows 259
10.1 Introduction: Astrobiology and Habitability 259
10.1.1 Habitable Zones 260
10.1.2 A Diversity of Habitability 261
10.2 Techniques and Space Missions for Direct Detection of Earth-Sized Worlds 263
10.2.1 Infrared Nulling Interferometer 263
10.2.2 Visible Light Coronograph 263
10.3 Remote Detection of Planetary Characteristics 264
10.3.1 Planetary System Environmental Characteristics 264
10.3.2 Photometry and Photometric Variability 265
10.3.3 Remote Sensing Spectroscopy 266
10.4 Biosignatures: The Global Footprints of Life 272
10.4.1 Atmospheric Biosignatures 273
10.4.2 Surface Signatures 275
10.4.3 Temporal Signatures 276
10.4.4 Sensitivity to Cloud Cover 278
10.5 Biosignature Detection 278 References 280
11 Moons of Exoplanets: Habitats for Life? Caleb A. Scharf 285
11.1 Introduction 285
11.1.1 Habitable Zones and Exoplanets 289
11.2 Moon Formation 290
11.3 Environmental Conditions of Moons 291
11.3.1 Tidal Heating and Boosted Temperatures 296
11.4 Moon Detection 297
11.5 Life on Exomoons 298
11.6 Summary 299 References 300 Index 305

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