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Pearson Learning Solutions
Exploring Communication Disorders: A 21st Century Introduction Through Literature and Media / Edition 2

Exploring Communication Disorders: A 21st Century Introduction Through Literature and Media / Edition 2

by Dennis C. Tanner


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Exploring Communication Disorders: A 21st Century Introduction Through Literature and Media / Edition 2

From the Foreword

Exploring Communication Disorders is an innovative text. It is an incredibly thorough work that provides countless examples that stretch your imagination, warm your heart, and stir your fears. It is comprehensive, easy-to-read, well organized, and immensely appropriate for a college-level text. To that end it is also ideally designed to support a liberal studies course that examines how communication disorders are treated in literature and media. It also provides an inviting way to tell students about the discipline of communication sciences and disorders in an entertaining and engaging manner. Professionals in speech—language pathology and audiology touch the lives of children and adults in very special ways. Students also learn about these professionals, gain a deeper understanding of human communication, and may someday as a result find their way to a career in speech—language pathology or audiology.

Wayne A. Secord, Ph.D.

University of Cincinnati

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781256632184
Publisher: Pearson Learning Solutions
Publication date: 06/20/2012
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 400
Sales rank: 362,721
Product dimensions: 9.10(w) x 7.50(h) x 0.60(d)

About the Author

Dennis C. Tanner is the author of twelve books and many scientific papers, diagnostic tests, and clinical programs. His article, Hooray for Hollywood: Communication Disorders and the Motion Picture Industry, was featured in the ASHA Leader, and he has presented courses on the same topic at conventions of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Dr. Tanner is currently Professor of Health Sciences, Speech-Language Sciences and Technology Program at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, Arizona. He has been named Outstanding Educator by the Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions and was the College of Health Professions "Teacher of the Year."

Table of Contents

Foreword by Wayne A. Secord xiii

Preface xv

To the Reader xxi

About the Author xxiii

1 Communication Disorders, Literature, Media, and Society 1

Communication Disorders, Literature, and Media in the 21st Century 1

Exploring Communication Disorders through Books, Plays, Current and Classic

Movies, and Public Figures 3

Communication Sciences and Disorders 4

The Communication Chain 5

Categories of Communication Disorders 9

Categories and Definitions of Communication Disorders 10

Fluency Disorders 10

Voice Disorders 11

Articulation and Phonology Disorders 11

Language Disorders in Children 11

Hearing Loss and Deafness 12

Motor Speech Disorders 12

Aphasia in Adults 12

Communication Disorders Resulting From Dementia 12

Communication Disorders Resulting from Head and Neck Injuries 13

Communication Variations and Swallowing Disorders 14

Incidence and Prevalence of Communication Disorders 14

History of the Perception and Treatment of People with Communication

Disorders 17

The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association 20

International Speech and Hearing Professional Organizations 21

Social Characteristics of Those With Communication Disorders 23

Group Size, Power, and Status 24

Social Visibility and Cohesiveness 25

Economic Disadvantage 25

Social Inclusion through Political and Technological Accommodation 26

Social Perceptions and Stereotypes 27

Literature, Media, and People With Communication Disorders 29

Summary 30

Study Questions 31

Suggested Reading 32

2 Stuttering and Cluttering 33

The Progression of Stuttering 35

Definition of Stuttering 36

Stuttering Behaviors 37

Incidence and Prevalence of Stuttering 38

The History of Stuttering 39

Disfluencies and Stuttering in Children 41

Etiology of Stuttering: Theories 43

Psychological Theories of Stuttering 43

Learning Theories of Stuttering 46

Organic Theories of Stuttering 48

Multiple Cause Theory of Stuttering 50

Characteristics of Stuttering 50

Stuttering and Singing 51

Stuttering and Nonthreatening Audiences 51

Stuttering, Speech Cues, and Self-Consciousness 52

Stuttering and Noise 52

Stuttering and Delayed Auditory Feedback 52

Stuttering and Other Variables 52

Key Aspects of Stuttering 53

What Is Heard 53

What Is Seen 53

What Is Felt 55

Effects on Personality 55

The Prevention of Stuttering in Children 57

Strategies for Parents, Teachers, and Pediatricians 57

Effectiveness of Treatment 57

Professional Treatment of Stuttering 59

Types of Therapy 60

Cure Versus Control 60

Treating Essential Aspects of Stuttering 62

Cluttering 68

Literature and Media Stereotypes 69

Summary 70

Study Questions 70

Suggested Reading 71

3 The Human Voice and Its Disorders 72

The Human Resonating System 73

Respiration: The Driving Force for the Voice 74

The Biological Pump 74

Lung Volumes, Pressures, and Capacities 75

The Larynx 75

The Pitch-Changing Mechanism 78

Aerodynamic and Muscular Forces in Voice Production 79

Voice Quality 80

Causes of Differences in Voice Quality 80

Descriptions of Voice Quality 82

Other Terms for Voice Quality 85

Evaluation of Voice Disorders 86

Vocal Cord Paralysis 87

Cancer and Other Diseases of the Larynx 90

Alaryngeal Speech 91

Psychogenic Voice Disorders 93

Conversion Reactions 93

Treatment of Psychogenic Voice Disorders 94

Disorders Related to Vocal Strain and Abuse 94

Causative Factors 94

Treatment of Disorders Related to Vocal Strain and Abuse 96

Cleft Lip and Palate 99

The Cleft Palate Team 102

Literature and Media Stereotypes 103

Summary 104

Study Questions 104

Suggested Reading 105


4 Articulation and Phonological Disorders 106

The Speech Articulators 108

Phonetic Transcription 109

Place and Manner of Production 110

Syllables 112

Dynamic Articulation 113

Etiology of Articulation Disorders 114

Deafness or Hearing Loss 115

Structural Defects of the Articulators 116

Motor Speech Disorders 117

Delayed Development 120

Auditory Perceptual and Sensory-Motor Deficiencies 124

Emotional Distress 126

Dialect and Accent 126

Evaluating Articulation and Phonology Disorders 129

Articulation Testing 130

Additional Diagnostic Information 132

Treatment of Articulation Disorders 133

Articulation Therapy for Hearing Loss and Deafness 133

Articulation Therapy for Structural Defects of the Articulators 133

Treatment of Phonological Disorders 134

Articulation Therapy for Structural Defects of the Articulators 134

Articulation Therapy for Motor Speech Disorders 134

Articulation Therapy for Auditory Perceptual and

Sensory-Motor Deficiencies 134

Other Articulation Therapies 135

Literature and Media Stereotypes 136

Summary 136

Study Questions 137

Suggested Reading and Video 137

5 Language Development and Disorders 139

Defining Language 141

Linguistic Competence and Performance 143

Cognitive, Linguistic, and Social-Communication Systems 143

Pragmatics 144

Assessing Language in Children 144

Intelligence and Language Development 146

Teachers, Language Delay, and Disorders 147

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 148

A Brief Overview of Language Development 149

Intellectual Disability 152

Autism Spectrum and Pervasive Developmental Disorders 156

Environmental Deprivation and Cultural Influences 159

Idioglossia 160

Learning Disabilities 161

Literature and Media Stereotypes 165

Summary 166

Study Questions 166

Suggested Reading 167

6 Hearing Loss and Deafness 168

The Study and Treatment of Hearing Disorders 169

The Range of Human Hearing 170

Hearing and Energy Transformation 171

Acoustic Energy Stage 171

Mechanical Energy Stage 172

Hydraulic Energy Stage 175

Electrochemical (Neural) Energy Stage 176

Hearing and Speech Acoustics 177

Incidence, Prevalence, Visibility, and Types of Hearing Loss 179

Conductive Hearing Loss 181

Sensorineural Hearing Loss 182

Central Auditory Processing Disorders 184

Hearing Assessment 184

Otoscopic Examination 186

Pure Tone Audiometry 186

Speech Audiometry 187

Acoustic Impedance Audiometry 187

Evoked Response Audiometry and Otoacoustic Emissions 188

Aural Habilitation and Rehabilitation 188

Medical and Surgical Treatment 190

Literature and Media Stereotypes 191

Summary 192

Study Questions 192

Suggested Reading 193

7 Motor Speech Disorders and Dysphagia 194

The “Big Three” Neurogenic Communication Disorders 196

Aphasia 196

Apraxia of Speech 197

The Dysarthrias 201

Dysphagia 211

The Swallowing Evaluation 212

Dysphagia Therapy 215

Literature and Media Stereotypes 216

Summary 217

Study Questions 217

Suggested Reading 218

8 Aphasia in Adults 219

Language and the Brain 221

Etiology of Aphasia and Related Disorders 222

The Syndrome of Aphasia 224

Aphasia: A Mulitmodality Disorder 225

Alexia 226

Agraphia 226

Acalculia 228

Gestural Problems 229

Predominantly Expressive, Nonfluent Aphasia 230

Predominantly Receptive, Fluent Aphasia 234

Factors in Following Complex Verbal Instructions 235

Loss of the Abstract Attitude 237

Word Retrieval Behaviors: Rhyme or Reason 238

Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon 239

Multilingualism and Aphasia 239

The Psychology of Aphasia 240

The Five Major Psychological Concomitants of Aphasia 241

Emotional Lability 242

Catastrophic Reactions 243

Perseveration 244

Organic Depression 246

The Grief Response 247

Aphasia Rehabilitation 248

Literature and Media Stereotypes 249

Summary 250

Study Questions 251

Suggested Reading 251

9 Communication Disorders Resulting

From Dementia 253

Dementia 256

Causes of Dementia 257

Disruptive Behaviors 259

Hallucinations and Delusions in Dementia 260

Communication Disorders in Dementia 261

Early Stage 262

Middle Stage 262

Late Stage 263

Evaluating and Treating Communication Disorders in

Patients with Dementia 264

Literature and Media Stereotypes 267

Summary 269

Study Questions 269

Suggested Reading 270

10 Communication Disorders Resultingfrom Head and Neck Injuries 271

The Head-Injured Person 272

The Mechanics of Traumatic Head and Neck Injuries 273

Communication Disorders and Impaired Consciousness 276

Coma 277

Communication Disorders and the Site of Traumatic Brain Injuries 279

Executive Functions 280

Disorientation and Traumatic Brain Injuries 281

Memory Problems 284

The Three Components to Memory 286

Attention 286

Storage 287

Recall 289

Memories, Libraries, and Tests 290

Memory and Test-Taking 291

Recognition and Recall 292

Behavioral Disorders 293

Flat Affect 294

Psychosis and Traumatic Brain Injury 294

Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury 296

Principles of Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injuries 297

Literature and Media Stereotypes 298

Summary 299

Study Questions 300

Suggested Reading 300

11 Communication Sciences and Disorders 301

The Profession of Speech-Language Pathology 301

The Profession of Audiology 302

Choosing a Profession 303

Research Opportunities in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology 304

The Job Market in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology 305

Professional Interests, Prestige, and Rewards 307

Educational Preparation, Certification, and Licensure 308

Student Issues and Degrees 309

The Doctorate in Communication Sciences and Disorders 311

Speech-Language Pathology Assistant 311

Professional Practice 312

Salaries, Benefits, and Private Practice 312

Keeping Current about Professional Issues 314

What Will the Future Bring to the Professions

of Speech-language Pathology and Audiology? 315

Suggested Reading and Websites 315

12 Original Short Stories in Communication Sciences and Disorders 316

Preponderance of Evidence 316

Chapter 1 316

Chapter 2 318

Chapter 3 319

Chapter 4 321

Chapter 5 322

Chapter 6 324

Chapter 7 324

Short Stories 326

A Day at JFK 326

Alex 326

Kevin 327

Michelle 329

Mikey and Nicole 330

The IEP Meeting 331

Alex’s Mom 333

“On the Road Again” 334

Welcome to the Cyber Speech and Hearing Clinic 335

Appendix A: Professional Issues and Informational Web Sites 341

Glossary 343

Literature, Media, and Personality: Home Pages,

Suggested Readings, References, and Resources 369

Academic References 383

Index 395

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