ISBN-10:
0521661250
ISBN-13:
9780521661256
Pub. Date:
05/17/2016
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press
Exploring Space, Exploring Earth: New Understanding of the Earth from Space Research

Exploring Space, Exploring Earth: New Understanding of the Earth from Space Research

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780521661256
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 05/17/2016
Pages: 382
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 8.98(h) x 1.02(d)

About the Author

Paul Lowman has been involved in a wide range of space research programs at the Goddard Space Flight Center. In 1963-4 he took part in planning for the Apollo missions. He was Principal Investigator for Synoptic Terrain Photography on the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo earth orbital missions, an experiment that laid the foundation for Landsat. Between 1965 and 1970 he taught lunar geology at the University of California, Catholic University of America, Washington DC, and the Air Force Institute of Technology. Dr Lowman was also involved with the Mariner 9 Mars mission, the Apollo X-ray fluorescence experiment and Apollo 11 and 12 sample analysis among others. His main research interest was and still is the origin of continental crust, as approached through comparative planetology. In 1974, Dr Lowman received the Lindsay Award from the Goddard Space Flight Center. He was elected a Fellow of the Geological Society of America in 1975, and of the Geological Society of Canada in 1988. Drawing on his dual career in terrestrial and lunar geology, he authored Space Panorama (1968), Lunar Panorama (1970), and The Third Planet (1972). He also contributed to Mission to Earth (1976), the first NASA compilation of Landsat pictures edited by N. M. Short.

Table of Contents

Forewordxi
Prefacexiii
Acknowledgementsxvii
1Preview of the orbital perspective: the million-year day1
1.1Introduction1
1.2A digital tectonic activity map of the Earth1
1.3Sea-surface satellite altimetry5
1.4Satellite measurement of plate motion and deformation7
1.5Satellite remote sensing7
1.6Satellite magnetic surveys10
1.7Origin and significance of the digital tectonic activity map12
2Space geodesy16
2.1Introduction16
2.2Space geodesy methods17
2.3Shape of the Earth33
2.4Gravity anomalies and global tectonics37
2.5Marine gravity and ocean-floor topography39
2.6Plate motion and deformation45
2.7Plate tectonics and continental drift51
2.8GPS measurements of crustal deformation56
2.9Earth rotation and expansion tectonics67
2.10Extraterrestrial gravity fields71
2.10.1Gravity field of the Moon71
2.10.2Gravity field of Mars76
2.10.3Gravity field of Venus79
2.11Summary82
3Satellite studies of geomagnetism83
3.1Introduction83
3.2Satellite investigations of the Earth's magnetic field91
3.3The main field92
3.4The crustal field94
3.5Extraterrestrial magnetic fields112
3.6Summary120
4Remote sensing: the view from space123
4.1Introduction123
4.2Orbital remote sensing in geology: a brief history126
4.3Tectonics and structural geology129
4.3.1Global tectonic activity map129
4.3.2Tectonics of southern Asia131
4.3.3Elsinore Fault136
4.3.4Lineament tectonics141
4.4Exploration geology153
4.4.1Petroleum exploration153
4.4.2Mineral exploration162
4.5Environmental geology167
4.5.1Active volcanism167
4.5.2Glacial geology178
4.5.3Aeolian geology and desertification183
4.6Summary190
5Impact cratering and terrestrial geology191
5.1Introduction191
5.2Hypervelocity impact193
5.3Impact craters196
5.4Cratering studies and the space age203
5.5Origin of continents207
5.6Origin of ocean basins209
5.7Economic importance of terrestrial impact structures210
5.8Origin of the Sudbury Structure214
5.9Impacts and basaltic magmatism220
5.10Impacts and mass extinctions221
5.11Summary223
6Comparative planetology and the origin of continental crust227
6.1Introduction227
6.2Origin of the continental crust229
6.3Previous studies230
6.3.1Crustal province boundaries: are they sutures?232
6.3.2Ensialic greenstone belts237
6.3.3Terrane accretion vs. reworking239
6.4Thermal histories of planets242
6.5Crustal evolution in silicate planets244
6.5.1First differentiation245
6.5.2Late heavy bombardment253
6.5.3Second differentiation253
6.5.4Summary254
6.6A model of continental crust255
6.7Evolution of the continental crust259
6.7.1Stage I: first differentiation261
6.7.2Stage II: second differentiation265
6.8Petrologic evolution of the Earth269
7Geology and biology: the influence of life on terrestrial geology272
7.1Introduction272
7.2Gaia273
7.3The geologic role of water276
7.4Gaia and geology278
7.5A biogenic theory of tectonic evolution278
7.6Summary279
Afterword282
Appendix AEssentials of physical geology288
Appendix BLunar missions, 1958 to 1994290
Appendix CPlanetary missions, 1961 to 1992297
Glossary of geologic terms305
Selected bibliography (by chapter)309
Index358

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