Facades: Principles of Construction

Facades: Principles of Construction

Hardcover(2., rev. ed.)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783038210443
Publisher: Birkhauser Verlag
Publication date: 09/01/2014
Edition description: 2., rev. ed.
Pages: 135
Product dimensions: 8.20(w) x 10.50(h) x 0.40(d)
Age Range: 18 Years

About the Author

Dr. Ulrich Knaack was formerly an architect in Düsseldorf and is now a professor of construction and design at the Technische Universiteit Delft (Delft University of Technology) and the Fachhochschule Detmold (University of Applied Sciences, Detmold). He is the author of the well-known textbooks Konstruktiver Glasbau (Glass Construction) and editor of the Birkhäuser series "Principles of Construction".

Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Auer is a partner at Transsolar Energietechnik in Stuttgart. He is a specialist in integrated building technology, and since 2001 he has been teaching at Yale University in the field of the Environmental Design of Buildings.

Dipl.-Ing. Tillmann Klein is an architect and heads the Facade Research Group at the Chair of Professor Knaack, Delft University of Technology.

Marcel Bilow is a research associate with Prof. Knaack’s chair at the Fachhochschule Lippe & Höxter (Lippe & Höxter University of Applied Sciences) in Detmold, where he directs the field Forschung und Entwicklung (Research and Development).

Prof. Ulrich Knaack, Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2 From Wall to Façade

Solid wall construction

Warm façade, cold façade

Openings in solid wall construction

Bridging the gap

Single glazing

Box window

Insulated glazing

Walls with skeletal structure

Half-timbered construction

Platform and balloon framing

Resolution of the wall into loadbearing structure and façade

Post-and-beam façade

Post façade

Beam façade

Curtain wall

System façade

Double façades

Second-skin façade

Box-window façade

Shaft-box façade

Alternating façade

Integrated façade

3 Principles of Construction

Areas of construction

Façade bearing structures and load transfer

Grid and positioning of the façade within the building

Systems used in façade construction

Post-and-beam construction

Unit system façade

Designing with systems

Openings in façade constructions




  1. Detailing and Tolerances

Building grid and positioning of components

Combination of functions

Detailing principles

Layering of details

Examples of detail development

Masonry cladding

Post-and-beam façade

Unit system façade


Plinth unit



5 Climate and Energy

Façade as interface to the exterior

User comfort

Thermal requirements

Visual requirements

Hygienic requirements

Acoustic requirements

Regulating the comfort level with the façade




Sun and glare protection

Light-directing systems

  1. Adaptive Façades




Greenhouse effect

History of adaptive façades

Collector façade

Trombe wall

Transparent heat insulation

Exhaust-air façade

Double façade

Box-window façade

Shaft-box façade

Corridor façade

Second-skin façade
Alternating façade

Integrated façade

7 Case Studies

Unit system façade: Debitel Headquarters, Stuttgart

Solid concrete façade: Zollverein School of Management and Design, Essen

Free-form metal façade: Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao

Timber-frame structure with multiple cladding: Hageneiland Housing, Ypenburg

8 A Look Into the Future

The forces driving new developments

Materials and technology

Technology transfer

Nano coatings

Adhesive materials technology

Smart materials

Production and assembly

Free-form façades

Modular construction

Composite building materials

Generative manufacturing methods

Computer technology

Evaluation strategies

Façade functionality

Design tools

The integrated envelope



Selected Bibliography


Illustration Credits

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