Abler's dissertation on Seneca Nation politics provides an insight into one of the most tumultuous eras of Onšndowa'ga:' history, when an elective system was established, replacing its Council of Chiefs. Unsavory actions of land speculators in collusion with federal and state officials had led to the loss of over 6 million acres of Seneca territory by 1842. This upheaval was also prompted in part by how treaty annuities were distributed and by the meddling of Hicksite Quakers who urged reform. In 1848, the new government marked the abandonment of the traditional governmental practices that had been in existence for centuries. The aftermath of the revolution resulted in a decades-long struggle between the proponents of the old chieftain system and the new elective system. The new government had to contend with railroad, timber, and oil companies intent on promoting leasing and/or allotment, the latter aimed to facilitate the transfer of ownership away from the Senecas.