A. Rorsch Member of the TNO Board of Management Like all living creatures man has from the very outset influenced the environment. Initially, the traces of human activity were hardly noticeable and so were their effects on the equilibrium of the ecosystem as such. However, as soon as man learned how to use tools, he was able to influence his surroundings more drastically, and to proliferate more rapidly. As a matter of fact that is the time when things went wrong, because a process was started off which was to continue with ever-increasing speed and on an ever increasing scale. The present condition of nature as a result of the activities of mankind is generally known. Whether it is an accident with a nuclear plant or the vanishing of tropical rain forests, acid deposition or the pollution of soil, water and air, environmental disasters almost seem to be the order of the day. It is striking that with all these - more or less arbitrary - examples the provision of energy plays a role. In this respect one can add an even more important energy carrier to the list, namely: crude oil.
|Edition description:||Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1987|
|Product dimensions:||6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)|
Table of ContentsI. “Physical and chemical behaviour of oil in the marine environment and biological processes affecting the fate of oil in marine ecosystems”.- The physical fate of weathered crude and emulsified fuel oils as a function of intertidal sedimentology.- Weathering of mineral oil in marine environment.- Droplet size distribution of naturally dispersed oil.- Hydrocarbon biodegradation in marine sediments: a biochemical approach.- A simple remote sensing system for the determination of dispersants effectiveness.- Biodegradation and photo-oxidation of crude oils in a tropical marine environment.- Oil in sediments of the Humber estuary following the ‘Sivand’ oilspill incident.- Laboratory and field investigation of the accumulation and depuration of petroleum hydrocarbons by black mussels.- II. “Effects of oil on species, populations and ecosystems, both in laboratory tests and in the field (including model ecosystems) and effects of the treatment of oil spills”.- The effect of the water soluble fraction of North Sea crude oil on the transport mechanism of taurine in erythrocytes from flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.).- Assessment of the vulnerability of marine mammals to oil pollution.- Effects of different oil doses, dispersant and dispersed oil on macrofauna in model tidal flat ecosystems.- Experimental application of oil-based muds and cuttings to seabed sediments.- Petroleum effects on osmoregulation in the marine halophytes Spartina alterniflora and Rhizophora mangle.- Oil pollution and plankton dynamics. IV. Summary of enclosure experiments in Lindåspollene, Norway, with special emphasis on the balance between autotrophic and heterotrophic processes.- The effects of oil and chemically dispersed oil on natural phytoplankton communities.- Oil and the mangroves of the northern Red Sea.- Effects of seven dispersants on growth of three subtropical/tropical atlantic seagrasses.- Toxicity of chemically dispersed oil in a flow-through system.- The use of tests in a wave basin to define dispersant effectiveness.- An assessment of the environmental hazard associated with the discharge of production water from a North Sea oil platform based on laboratory bioassays with a calanoid copepod - Acartia tonsa (Dana).- The effectiveness of a new type III dispersant in the treatment of weathered crude and emulsified fuel oils on saltmarshes and sandflats.- Impact of oil on coastal industries.- The effects of oil pollution on interacting salt marsh species.- III. “Monitoring of oil in abiotic compartments of marine ecosystems and monitoring of biological effects of oil spills both on the species and the ecosystem level”.- The migration of stranded oil from a sheltered beach into adjacent nearshore subtidal sediments.- Kinetics of aromatic hydrocarbon depuration by oysters impacted by the AMOCO CADIZ oil spill.- Biological and chemical monitoring of seabed sediments at the Sullom Voe North Sea terminal - a synthesis of data for the period 1978-1985.- Measurement of scope for growth and tissue hydrocarbon concentrations of mussels (Mytilus edulis) at sites in the vicinity of the Sullom Voe oil terminal - a case study.- Oil-based drilling fluids: are they an environmental risk?.- Practical methods for monitoring rocky shore communities.- A summary of research and monitoring studies carried out in North Sea oilfields by the Oil Pollution Research Unit 1973-1986.- IV. “Risk management and risk analysis”.- SEABEL Hazard identification and response decision for chemical spillages at sea.- Oil spill risk management: the strategic response case.- Environmental impact assessment procedure for oil pollution in the Dutch Wadden Sea - the F3 pipeline example.- International acceptance of shoreline sensitivity mapping as an integral spill-response component.- A computer simulation model depicting oil impact and removal within coastal environments.- The Alvenus oil spill along the Texas coastline.- Keyword index.- Scientific names of organisms mentioned in the texts.