FBAR, MEMS and NEMS Resonator Design and Applications

FBAR, MEMS and NEMS Resonator Design and Applications

by Humberto Campanella

Hardcover

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Overview

This groundbreaking book provides professionals with a comprehensive understanding of FBAR (thin-film bulk acoustic wave resonator), MEMS (microelectro-mechanical system), and NEMS (nanoelectromechanical system) resonators. For the first time anywhere, practitioners find extensive coverage of these devices at both the technology and application levels. This practical reference helps engineers:

Design, fabricate, and characterize FBARs, MEMS, and NEMS;

Integrate these devices with standard CMOS (complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor) technologies;

Apply FBARs, MEMS, and NEMS to sensing and RF systems;

Understand the main characteristics, differences, and limitations of FBAR, MEMS, and NEMS devices.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781607839774
Publisher: Artech House, Incorporated
Publication date: 02/28/2010
Pages: 360
Product dimensions: 7.20(w) x 10.20(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

Humberto Campanella is an associate professor at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB) and serves on the graduate research staff at the Centro Nacional de Microelectrònica in Barcelona. He holds a Ph.D. in both electronics engineering and microelectronics and automated systems from Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and the Université Montpellier II in France, respectively.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xv

Chapter 1 MEMS and NEMS Resonator Technologies 1

1.1 What Is MEMS and What Is NEMS? 1

1.2 Physical Fundamentals of MEMS and NEMS Resonators 5

1.2.1 The Mechanical Damped Harmonic Oscillator 6

1.2.2 Quality Factor and Damping Mechanisms 8

1.2.3 Transduction in MEMS and NEMS Resonators 11

1.2.4 Resonance Frequency, Mode Shaping, and Aspect Ratio 18

1.3 Key Fabrication Technologies 22

1.3.1 The Production Cycle 22

1.3.2 Common to Integrated Circuit (MEMS) 24

1.3.3 Nanofabrication Techniques (NEMS) 31

1.4 Summary 33

References 33

Chapter 2 Acoustic Microresonator Technologies 37

2.1 Introduction to Acoustic Wave Resonators 37

2.1.1 Acoustic Waves 38

2.1.2 Acoustic Microresonators 40

2.2 Fundamentals of Piezoelectricity and Acoustic Wave Propagation 42

2.2.1 Theory of Piezoelectricity 42

2.2.2 Excitation and Vibration Mode Description 44

2.3 Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Resonators 46

2.3.1 One-Port and Two-Port Configurations 47

2.3.2 SAW Resonator Design 50

2.3.3 SAW Applications 51

2.4 Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonators 51

2.4.1 Acoustic Wave Propagation in BAW Devices 52

2.4.2 Thin-Film Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonators (FBAR) 54

2.4.3 Solidly Mounted Resonators (SMR) 57

2.4.4 FBAR and SMR Applications 60

2.5 Summary 64

References 65

Chapter 3 Design and Modeling of Micro- and Nanoresonators 69

3.1 The Stages of Resonator Design and Modeling 69

3.2 The Electromechanical Transformer 75

3.2.1 MEMS and NEMS Resonators 76

3.2.2 FBAR and Other Acoustic Resonators 78

3.3 Equivalent-Circuit Models 82

3.3.1 The Resonant LC Tank 82

3.3.2 The Butterworth-Van-Dyke Model 83

3.3.3 Case Study: FBAR Process and Modeling 86

3.4 Finite Element Modeling (FEM) 88

3.4.1 Building the Model 90

3.4.2 Structural, Modal, and Harmonic Analyses 92

3.4.3 Coupled-Domain Analysis 94

3.4.4 Case Study: Modal and Harmonic Analysis of a Resonant Mass Sensor 96

3.5 Summary 99

References 100

Chapter 4 Fabrication Techniques 103

4.1 Process Overview 103

4.2 FBAR Fabrication Techniques 105

4.2.1 Oxidation of Silicon 105

4.2.2 Metallization and Piezoelectric Layer Deposition 106

4.2.3 Surface-Micromachining-Based Process 108

4.2.4 Bulk-Micromachining-Based Processes 109

4.3 Instrumentation and Materials for Fabrication 110

4.4 Process Compatibility and Characterization 112

4.4.1 Thin-Film Attributes 112

4.4.2 Crystallography 114

4.4.3 Etching Performance 118

4.4.4 Structural Performance 121

4.5 Summary 123

References 125

Chapter 5 Characterization Techniques 127

5.1 Low- and High-Frequency Electrical Characterization 127

5.1.1 Short-Open DC and Low-Frequency Measurements 128

5.1.2 Microwave Network Theory and the Scattering-Parameter Description 130

5.1.3 High-Frequency Measurement Setup 131

5.1.4 Quality Factor Extraction 133

5.2 Determination of Elastic, Dielectric, and Piezoelectric Constants 140

5.2.1 Elastic Constants 140

5.2.2 Dielectric Constants 143

5.2.3 Piezoelectric Properties 144

5.3 Equivalent-Circuit-Parameter Extraction 146

5.3.1 Parameter-Extraction Algorithm 147

5.3.2 Case Study: Equivalent-Circuit-Parameter Extraction of an FBAR 150

5.4 AFM, Optical, and Electron-Beam-Induced Characterization 151

5.4.1 AFM-Based Characterization with Optical Detection 151

5.4.2 Optical Microscope Interferometry with Piezoelectric Actuation 154

5.4.3 Fabry-Pérot Interferometry 155

5.4.4 Electron-Beam Excitation 157

5.5 Summary 158

References 158

Chapter 6 Performance Optimization 163

6.1 Frequency Stability 163

6.1.1 Thin-Film Thickness Tolerance 164

6.1.2 Layout Design Effects 165

6.1.3 Time and Frequency Stability 165

6.1.4 Temperature Stability and Thermal Coefficient Factor (TCF) 168

6.2 Temperature Compensation 169

6.2.1 TCFBAR Fabrication Processes 170

6.2.2 Behavioral Description and Modeling of a TCFBAR 171

6.3 Frequency Tuning 172

6.3.1 DC Tuning 174

6.3.2 Uniform-Film Deposition 175

6.3.3 FIB-Assisted Tuning Technique 177

6.3.3 Milling of FBAR as Another FIB-Tuning Procedure 179

6.3.4 Frequency-Tuning Sensitivity and Responsivity 180

6.3.5 Quality Factor 181

6.4 Summary 183

References 184

Chapter 7 Integration of Resonator to CMOS Technologies 187

7.1 Integration Strategies 187

7.1.1 Hybrid Integration 188

7.1.2 Monolithic Integration 191

7.1.3 Heterogeneous Integration 194

7.2 State-of-the-Art Integrated Applications 195

7.2.1 MEMS and NEMS Resonators 196

7.2.2 SAW and FBAR 200

7.2.3 Advanced 3D Integration Technologies: Wafer Level Transfer 204

7.3 Wafer-Level-Transfer-Based FBAR-to-CMOS Integration 204

7.3.1 The Resonator Process 207

7.3.2 The CMOS Process 209

7.3.3 The Wafer-Level-Transfer Process 213

7.3.4 Characterization and Technology Optimization 215

7.4 Summary 219

References 221

Chapter 8 Sensor Applications 225

8.1 Resonant Sensing Performance 225

8.1.1 The Role of the Q Factor on Resolution 226

8.1.2 Performance Features and Parameters 227

8.2 Mass Sensors 229

8.2.1 MEMS-Based Microbalances 229

8.2.2 Ultrasensitive NEMS Mass Sensors 234

8.2.3 Acoustic Resonator Distributed-Mass Sensors 238

8.2.4 FBAR-Based Localized-Mass Detection 242

8.3 Mechanical Sensors 245

8.3.1 Pressure Sensors 246

8.3.2 Accelerometers 248

8.4 Atomic Force Detection 251

8.5 Magnetic Sensors 254

8.6 Summary 259

References 260

Chapter 9 Radio Frequency Applications 265

9.1 Introduction 266

9.2 Passive-Circuit Applications 269

9.2.1 SAW, BAW, and FBAR-Based Band-Selection Filters 269

9.2.2 Duplexers, Triplexers, and More 271

9.2.3 Microelectromechanical Filters 277

9.2.4 RF MEMS Switches 282

9.3 Active-Circuit Applications 285

9.3.1 Oscillators 285

9.3.2 Mixers and Mixlers 289

9.3.3 Tuned Low-Noise Amplifiers 292

9.3.4 RF Front-End Systems 293

9.4 Summary 297

References 298

Chapter 10 Case Studies: Modeling, Design, and Fabrication of FBAR and MEMS-Based Systems 303

10.1 Methodological Approach for MEMS-IC Integration 304

10.2 Case I: Compatibility of FBAR and Silicon Technologies 306

10.2.1 Compatibility Testing 306

10.2.2 Front-Side, Reactive-Ion-Etching-Based Process 312

10.2.3 Back-Side Wet-Etching Process 317

10.3 Case II: High-Level Design of a Temperature-Compensated (TC) Oscillator 319

10.3.1 The Temperature Stability Issue in Oscillators 320

10.3.2 Low Phase Noise FBAR-Based Oscillators 322

10.3.3 Codesign of an FBAR-Based TC Oscillator 323

10.4 Case III: Read-Out Circuit Design of a 434-MHz MEMS Resonator 330

10.4.1 MEMS-CMOS Integration Technology 331

10.4.2 Read-Out Circuit Specification and Circuit Architecture 332

10.4.3 Read-Out Implementation and Characterization 333

10.5 Summary 334

References 335

About the Author 337

Index 339

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