A Practical Guide to Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux

A Practical Guide to Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux

by Mark G. Sobell

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780137063512
Publisher: Pearson Education
Publication date: 02/11/2010
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 1224
File size: 35 MB
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About the Author

Mark G. Sobell is President of Sobell Associates Inc., a consulting firm that specializes in UNIX/Linux training, support, and custom software development. He has more than twenty-five years of experience working with UNIX and Linux systems and is the author of many best-selling books, including A Practical Guide to Linux® Commands, Editors, and Shell Programming, Second Edition, and A Practical Guide to Ubuntu Linux®, Second Edition, both from Prentice Hall, and A Practical Guide to the UNIX System from Addison-Wesley.

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The Book

Whether you are an end user, a system administrator, or a little of each, this book explains with step-by-step examples how to get the most out of a Fedora or Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) system. In 28 chapters, this book takes you from installing a Fedora or Red Hat Enterprise Linux system through understanding its inner workings to setting up secure servers that run on the system.The Audience

This book is designed for a wide range of readers. It does not require you to have programming experience, but having some experience using a general-purpose computer is helpful. This book is appropriate for

  • Students who are taking a class in which they use Linux
  • Home users who want to set up and/or run Linux
  • Professionals who use Linux at work
  • System administrators who need an understanding of Linux and the tools that are available to them
  • Computer science students who are studying the Linux operating system
  • Programmers who need to understand the Linux programming environment
  • Technical executives who want to get a grounding in Linux
Benefits

A Practical Guide to Fedora and Red Hat® Enterprise Linux®, College Edition, gives you a broad understanding of many facets of Linux, from installing Fedora/RHEL through using and customizing it. No matter what your background, this book gives you the knowledge you need to get on with your work. You will come away from this book understanding how to use Linux, and this book will remain a valuable reference for years tocome.Overlap

If you read A Practical Guide to Linux® Commands, Editors, and Shell Programming, you will notice some overlap between that book and the one you are reading now. The first chapter, and the chapters on the utilities, the filesystem, programming tools, and the appendix on regular expressions are very similar in the two books, as are the three chapters on the Bourne Again Shell (

bash). Chapters that appear in this book but not in A Practical Guide to Linux® Commands, Editors, and Shell Programming include Chapters 2 and 3 (installation), Chapters 4 and 8 (Fedora/RHEL and the GUI), Chapter 10 (networking), all of the chapters in Part IV (system administration) and Part V (servers), and Appendix C (security).This Book Includes Fedora 8 on a DVD

A Practical Guide to Fedora and Red Hat® Enterprise Linux®, College Edition, includes a DVD that you can use to install or upgrade to Fedora 8. Chapter 2 helps you get ready to install Fedora. Chapter 3 provides step-by-step instructions for installing Fedora from this DVD. This book guides you through learning about, using, and administrating Fedora or Red Hat Enterprise Linux.What Is New in This Edition?

The college edition of A Practical Guide to Fedora and Red Hat® Enterprise Linux® covers Fedora 8 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 5. There is a new section on LDAP in Chapter 21. Chapters 2 and 3 cover booting into a live session and installing from live media. All the changes, large and small, that have been made to Fedora/RHEL since the previous edition of this book have been incorporated into the explanations and examples.Features of This Book

This book is designed and organized so you can get the most out of it in the shortest amount of time. You do not have to read this book straight through in page order. Once you are comfortable using Linux, you can use this book as a reference: Look up a topic of interest in the table of contents or index and read about it. Or think of the book as a catalog of Linux topics: Flip through the pages until a topic catches your eye. The book includes many pointers to Web sites where you can get additional information: Consider the Internet an extension of this book.

A Practical Guide to Fedora and Red Hat® Enterprise Linux®, College Edition, is structured with the following features:

  • In this book, the term Fedora/RHEL refers to both Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Features that apply to only one operating system or the other are marked as such using these indicators:

    FEDORA or

    RHEL.

  • Optional sections enable you to read the book at different levels, returning to more difficult material when you are ready to delve into it.
  • Caution boxes highlight procedures that can easily go wrong, giving you guidance before you run into trouble.
  • Tip boxes highlight ways that you can save time by doing something differently or situations when it may be useful or just interesting to have additional information.
  • Security boxes point out places where you can make a system more secure. The security appendix presents a quick background in system security issues.
  • Concepts are illustrated by practical examples throughout the book.
  • Chapter summaries review the important points covered in each chapter.
  • Review exercises are included at the end of each chapter for readers who want to further hone their skills. Answers to even-numbered exercises are at www.sobell.com.
  • This book provides resources for finding software on the Internet. It also explains how download and install software using

    yum, BitTorrent, and, for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Red Hat Network (RHN).

  • The glossary defines more than 500 common terms.
  • The book describes in detail many important GNU tools, including the

    gcc C compiler, the

    gdb debugger, the GNU Configure and Build System,

    make, and

    gzip.

  • Pointers throughout the text provide help in obtaining online documentation from many sources including the local system, the Red Hat Web site, the Fedora Project Web site, and other locations on the Internet.
  • Many useful URLs (Internet addresses) point to sites where you can obtain software, security programs and information, and more.
  • The comprehensive index helps you locate topics quickly and easily.
Key Topics Covered in This Book

This book contains a lot of information. This section distills and summarizes its contents. You may want to review the table of contents for more detail. This book covers the following.Installation

  • Describes how to download from the Internet and burn both Fedora Desktop Live Media CD/DVDs and Fedora Install Media DVDs.
  • Helps you plan the layout of the system’s hard disk and assists you in using Disk Druid or the GNOME graphical partition editor (

    gparted) to partition the hard disk.

  • Explains how to use the Logical Volume Manager (LVM2) to set up, grow, and migrate logical volumes, which are similar in function to traditional disk partitions.
  • Discusses booting into a live Fedora session and installing Fedora from that session.
  • Describes in detail how to install Fedora/RHEL from a DVD, CD, a hard disk, or over a network using FTP, NFS, or HTTP.
  • Covers boot command line parameters (

    FEDORA), responses to the boot: prompt (

    RHEL), and explains how to work with Anaconda, Fedora/RHEL’s installation program.

  • Covers the details of customizing the X.org version of the X Window System.
Working with Fedora/RHEL
  • Introduces the graphical desktop (GUI) and explains how to use desktop tools including the panel, Panel menu, Main menu, Window Operations menu, Desktop menu, Desktop switcher, and terminal emulator.
  • Presents the KDE desktop and covers using Konqueror to manage files, start programs, and browse the Web.
  • Covers the GNOME desktop and the Nautilus file manager.
  • Explains how to customize your desktop to please your senses and help you work more efficiently.
  • Covers the Bourne Again Shell (

    bash) in three chapters, including an entire chapter on shell programming that includes many sample shell scripts.

  • Explains the command line interface (CLI) and introduces more than 30 command line utilities.
  • Presents a tutorial on the

    vim (

    vi work-alike) textual editor.

  • Covers types of networks, network protocols, and network utilities.
  • Explains hostnames, IP addresses, and subnets, and explores how to use

    host and

    dig to look up domain names and IP addresses on the Internet.

  • Covers distributed computing and the client/server model.
System Administration
  • Explains how to use the Fedora/RHEL

    system-config-* tools to configure the display, DNS, Apache, a network interface, and more. You can also use these tools to add users and manage local and remote printers. (See page 429 for a list of these tools.)

  • Describes how to use the following tools to download software and keep a system current:
  • yum—Downloads and installs software packages from the Internet, keeping a system up-to-date and resolving dependencies as it processes the packages. You can run

    yum manually or set it up to run automatically every night.

  • BitTorrent—Good for distributing large amounts of data such as the Fedora installation DVD and the live media CD/DVD. The more people who use BitTorrent to download a file, the faster it works.
  • up2date—The Red Hat Enterprise Linux tool for keeping system software current.

  • Covers graphical system administration tools, including the Main menu, GNOME and KDE menu systems, KDE Control Center, and KDE Control panel.
  • Explains system operation, including the boot process, init scripts, emergency mode, rescue mode, single-user and multiuser modes, and steps to take if the system crashes.
  • Describes files, directories, and filesystems, including types of files and filesystems,

    fstab (the filesystem table), automatically mounted filesystems, filesystem integrity checks, filesystem utilities, and fine-tuning of filesystems.

  • Covers backup utilities including

    tar,

    cpio,

    dump, and

    restore.

  • Explains how to customize and build a Linux kernel.
Security
  • Helps you manage basic system security issues using

    ssh (secure shell), vsftpd (secure FTP server), Apache (the httpd Web server),

    iptables (firewall), and more.

  • Presents a complete section on SELinux (Security Enhanced Linux), including instructions for using

    system-config-selinux to configure SELinux.

  • Covers using

    system-config-firewall to set up a basic firewall to protect the system.

  • Provides instructions on using

    iptables to share an Internet connection over a LAN and to build advanced firewalls.

  • Describes how to set up a

    chroot jail to protect a server system.

  • Explains how to use TCP wrappers to control who can access a server.
  • Covers controlling servers using the xinetd superserver.
Clients and Servers
  • Explains how to set up and use the most popular Linux servers, providing a chapter on each: Apache, Samba, OpenSSH, sendmail, DNS, NFS, FTP, NIS and LDAP,

    iptables (all of which are included with Fedora/RHEL).

  • Describes how to set up a CUPS printer server.
  • Describes how to set up and use a DHCP server.
Programming
  • Covers programming tools including the GNU

    gcc compiler, the

    gdb debugger,

    make, and CVS for managing source code.

  • Explains how to debug a C program.
  • Describes how to work with shared libraries.
  • Provides a complete chapter on shell programming using

    bash, including many examples.

Details

Chapter 1 presents a brief history of Linux and explains some of the features that make it a cutting-edge operating system. The “Conventions Used in This Book” (page 16) section details the typefaces and terminology this book uses.

Part I, “Installing Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux,” discusses how to install Fedora/RHEL. Chapter 2 presents an overview of the process of installing Fedora/RHEL, including hardware requirements, downloading and burning a CD/DVD, and planning the layout of the hard disk. Chapter 3 is a step-by-step guide to installing either Fedora or Red Hat Enterprise Linux and covers installing from a CD/DVD, a live session, a local hard disk, and installing over the network using FTP, NFS, or HTTP. It also shows how to set up the X Window System and customize your graphical user interface (GUI).

Part II, “Getting Started with Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux,” familiarizes you with Fedora/RHEL, covering logging in, the GUI, utilities, the filesystem, and the shell. Chapter 4 introduces desktop features, including the panel and the Main menu; explains how to use Konqueror to manage files, run programs, and browse the Web; and covers finding documentation, dealing with login problems, and using the window manager. Chapter 5 introduces the shell command line interface, describes more than 30 useful utilities, and presents a tutorial on the

vim text editor. Chapter 6 discusses the Linux hierarchical filesystem, covering files, filenames, pathnames, working with directories, access permissions, and hard and symbolic links. Chapter 7 introduces the Bourne Again Shell (

bash) and discusses command line arguments and options, redirecting input to and output from commands, running programs in the background, and using the shell to generate and expand filenames.

TIP: Experienced users may want to skim Part II
If you have used a UNIX or Linux system before, you may want to skim over or skip some or all of the chapters in Part II. All readers should take a look at “Conventions Used in This Book” (page 16), which explains the typographic and layout conventions that this book uses, and “Getting the Facts: Where to Find Documentation” (page 114), which points out both local and remote sources of Linux/Fedora/RHEL documentation.

Part III, “Digging into Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux,” goes into more detail about working with the system. Chapter 8 discusses the GUI and includes a section on how to run a graphical program on a remote system and have the display appear locally. The section on GNOME describes GNOME utilities and explains how to use the Nautilus file manager, including its spatial view, while the section on KDE explains more about Konqueror and KDE utilities. Chapter 9 extends the

bash coverage from Chapter 7, explaining how to redirect error output, avoid overwriting files, and work with job control, processes, startup files, important shell builtin commands, parameters, shell variables, and aliases. Chapter 10 explains networks, network security, and the Internet and discusses types of networks, subnets, protocols, addresses, hostnames, and various network utilities. The section on distributed computing describes the client/server model and some of the servers you can use on a network. Details of setting up and using clients and servers are reserved until Part V.

Part IV covers system administration. Chapter 11 discusses core concepts such as Superuser, SELinux (Security Enhanced Linux), system operation, general information about how to set up a server, DHCP, and PAM. Chapter 12 explains the Linux filesystem, going into detail about types of files, including special and device files, the use of

fsck to verify the integrity of and repair filesystems, and the use of

tune2fs to change filesystem parameters. Chapter 13 explains how to keep a system up-todate by downloading software from the Internet and installing it, including examples of using yum, BitTorrent, and RHEL’s

up2date utility. Chapter 14 explains how to set up the CUPS printing system so you can print on the local system as well as on remote systems. Chapter 15 details customizing and building a Linux kernel. Chapter 16 covers additional administration tasks, including setting up user accounts, backing up files, scheduling automated tasks, tracking disk usage, and solving general problems. Chapter 17 explains how to set up a local area network (LAN), including both hardware (including wireless) and software setup.

Part V goes into detail about setting up and running servers and connecting to them with clients. The chapters in this part of the book cover the following clients/servers:

  • OpenSSH—Set up an OpenSSH server and use

    sh,

    scp, and

    sftp to communicate securely over the Internet.

  • FTP—Set up a vsftpd secure FTP server and use any of several FTP clients to exchange files with the server.
  • Mail—Configure sendmail and use Webmail, POP3, or IMAP to retrieve email; use SpamAssassin to combat spam.
  • NIS and LDAP—Set up NIS to facilitate system administration of a LAN and LDAP to distribute information and authenticate users over a network.
  • NFS—Share filesystems between systems on a network.
  • Samba—Share filesystems and printers between Windows and Linux systems.
  • DNS/BIND—Set up a domain nameserver to let other systems on the Internet know the names and IP addresses of local systems they may need to contact.
  • iptables—Share a single Internet connection between systems on a LAN and set up a firewall to protect local systems.
  • Apache—Set up an HTTP server that serves Web pages that browsers can display.

Part VI covers programming. Chapter 27 discusses programming tools and environments available under Fedora/RHEL, including the C programming language and debugger,

make, shared libraries, and source code management using CVS. Chapter 28 goes into greater depth about shell programming using

bash, with the discussion being enhanced by extensive examples.

Part VII includes appendixes on regular expressions, helpful Web sites, system security, and free software. This part also includes an extensive glossary with more than 500 entries and a comprehensive index.Supplements

The author’s home page (www.sobell.com) contains downloadable listings of the longer programs from this book as well as pointers to many interesting and useful Linux sites on the World Wide Web, a list of corrections to the book, answers to even-numbered exercises, and a solicitation for corrections, comments, and suggestions.

Table of Contents

Preface xxxvii

 

Chapter 1: Welcome to Linux 1

The GNU—Linux Connection 2

The Linux 2.6 Kernel 5

The Heritage of Linux: UNIX 5

What Is So Good About Linux? 6

Overview of Linux 10

Additional Features of Linux 14

Conventions Used in This Book 16

Chapter Summary 19

Exercises 19

 

Part I: Installing Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 21

 

Chapter 2: Installation Overview 23

The Desktop Live CD and the Install DVD 24

Planning the Installation 24

The Installation Process 39

The Medium: Where Is the Source Data? 40

Downloading a CD/DVD (FEDORA) 41

Checking and Burning the CD/DVD 45

Rescue Selection of the Install DVD 46

Gathering Information About the System 46

Finding the Installation Manual 47

More Information 48

Chapter Summary 48

Exercises 49

Advanced Exercises 49

 

Chapter 3: Step-by-Step Installation 51

Running a Fedora Live Session 52

Installing Fedora/RHEL 55

Installation Tasks 68

The X Window System 84

Chapter Summary 85

Exercises 85

Advanced Exercises 86

 

Part II: Getting Started with Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 87

 

Chapter 4: Introduction to Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 89

Curbing Your Power (Superuser/root Privileges) 90

A Tour of the Fedora/RHEL Desktop 90

Getting the Most Out of the Desktop 109

Updating, Installing, and Removing Software Packages 122

Where to Find Documentation 124

More About Logging In 132

Working from the Command Line 138

Controlling Windows: Advanced Operations 141

Chapter Summary 143

Exercises 144

Advanced Exercises 145

 

Chapter 5: The Linux Utilities 147

Special Characters 148

Basic Utilities 149

Working with Files 151

(Pipe): Communicates Between Processes 158

Four More Utilities 159

Compressing and Archiving Files 161

Locating Commands 166

Obtaining User and System Information 168

Communicating with Other Users 172

Email 174

Tutorial: Creating and Editing a File Using vim 174

Chapter Summary 181

Exercises 184

Advanced Exercises 185

 

Chapter 6: The Linux Filesystem 187

The Hierarchical Filesystem 188

Directory Files and Ordinary Files 188

Pathnames 193

Directory Commands 195

Working with Directories 200

Access Permissions 202

ACLs: Access Control Lists 207

Links 212

Chapter Summary 218

Exercises 220

Advanced Exercises 222

 

Chapter 7: The Shell 223

The Command Line 224

Standard Input and Standard Output 230

Running a Program in the Background 241

Filename Generation/Pathname Expansion 243

Builtins 247

Chapter Summary 248

Utilities and Builtins Introduced in This Chapter 249

Exercises 249

Advanced Exercises 251

 

Part III: Digging into Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 253

 

Chapter 8: Linux GUIs: X and GNOME 255

X Window System 256

The Nautilus File Browser Window 264

The Nautilus Spatial View 270

GNOME Utilities 272

Chapter Summary 276

Exercises 277

Advanced Exercises 277

 

Chapter 9: The Bourne Again Shell 279

Background 280

Shell Basics 281

Parameters and Variables 299

Special Characters 313

Processes 314

History 316

Aliases 332

Functions 335

Controlling bash Features and Options 338

Processing the Command Line 342

Chapter Summary 351

Exercises 353

Advanced Exercises 355

 

Chapter 10: Networking and the Internet 357

Types of Networks and How They Work 359

Communicate Over a Network 374

Network Utilities 376

Distributed Computing 383

Usenet 392

WWW: World Wide Web 395

Chapter Summary 397

Exercises 398

Advanced Exercises 399

 

Part IV: System Administration 401

 

Chapter 11: System Administration: Core Concepts 403

System Administrator and Superuser 405

Rescue Mode 411

SELinux 414

The Upstart Event-Based init Daemon (FEDORA) 417

System Operation 424

System Administration Utilities 436

Setting Up a Server 441

nsswitch.conf: Which Service to Look at First 455

PAM 458

Chapter Summary 464

Exercises 464

Advanced Exercises 465

 

Chapter 12: Files, Directories, and Filesystems 467

Important Files and Directories 468

File Types 480

Filesystems 485

Chapter Summary 495

Exercises 495

Advanced Exercises 496

 

Chapter 13: Downloading and Installing Software 497

yum: Keeps the System Up-to-Date 498

Adding and Removing Software Packages 505

BitTorrent 507

rpm: Red Hat Package Manager 510

Installing Non-rpm Software 513

Keeping Software Up-to-Date 515

wget: Downloads Files Noninteractively 517

Chapter Summary 518

Exercises 518

Advanced Exercises 518

 

Chapter 14: Printing with CUPS 519

Introduction 520

JumpStart I: Configuring a Local Printer 521

system-config-printer: Configuring a Printer 522

JumpStart II: Setting Up a Local or Remote Printer Using the CUPS Web Interface 527

Traditional UNIX Printing 530

Configuring Printers 532

Printing from Windows 538

Printing to Windows 540

Chapter Summary 540

Exercises 541

Advanced Exercises 541

 

Chapter 15: Rebuilding the Linux Kernel 543

Preparing the Source Code 544

Read the Documentation 546

Configuring and Compiling the Linux Kernel 547

Installing the Kernel and Associated Files 550

Rebooting the System 550

Boot Loader 551

dmesg: Displays Kernel Messages 553

Chapter Summary 553

Exercises 554

Advanced Exercises 554

 

Chapter 16: Administration Tasks 555

Configuring User and Group Accounts 556

Backing Up Files 558

Scheduling Tasks 565

System Reports 566

parted: Reports on and Partitions a Hard Disk 568

Keeping Users Informed 572

Creating Problems 572

Solving Problems 574

MySQL 584

Chapter Summary 592

Exercises 593

Advanced Exercises 593

 

Chapter 17: Configuring and Monitoring a LAN 595

Setting Up the Hardware 596

Configuring the Systems 598

NetworkManager: Configures Network Connections 599

The Network Configuration Window (system-config-network) 601

iwconfig: Configures a Wireless NIC 605

Setting Up Servers 606

Introduction to Cacti 607

More Information 617

Chapter Summary 617

Exercises 618

Advanced Exercises 618

 

Part V: Using Clients and Setting Up Servers 619

 

Chapter 18: OpenSSH: Secure Network Communication 621

Introduction 622

About OpenSSH 622

OpenSSH Clients 625

sshd: OpenSSH Server 633

Troubleshooting 637

Tunneling/Port Forwarding 638

Chapter Summary 641

Exercises 641

Advanced Exercises 642

 

Chapter 19: FTP: Transferring Files Across a Network 643

Introduction 644

More Information 645

FTP Client 645

FTP Server (vsftpd) 654

Chapter Summary 666

Exercises 667

Advanced Exercises 667

 

Chapter 20: sendmail: Setting Up Mail Clients, Servers, and More 669

Introduction 670

JumpStart I: Configuring sendmail on a Client 672

JumpStart II: Configuring sendmail on a Server 673

How sendmail Works 674

Configuring sendmail 677

Additional Email Tools 682

Authenticated Relaying 689

Alternatives to sendmail 691

Chapter Summary 692

Exercises 692

Advanced Exercises 693

 

Chapter 21: NIS and LDAP 695

Introduction to NIS 696

How NIS Works 696

Setting Up an NIS Client 699

Setting Up an NIS Server 703

LDAP 710

Setting Up an LDAP Server 713

Chapter Summary 723

Exercises 724

Advanced Exercises 724

 

Chapter 22: NFS: Sharing Filesystems 727

Introduction 728

More Information 730

Setting Up an NFS Client 730

Setting Up an NFS Server 736

automount: Automatically Mounts Directory Hierarchies 744

Chapter Summary 746

Exercises 746

Advanced Exercises 747

 

Chapter 23: Samba: Integrating Linux and Windows 749

Introduction 750

About Samba 751

JumpStart: Configuring a Samba Server Using system-config-samba 753

swat: Configures a Samba Server 755

Manually Configuring a Samba Server 759

Accessing Linux Shares from Windows 765

Accessing Windows Shares from Linux 766

Troubleshooting 768

Chapter Summary 770

Exercises 771

Advanced Exercises 771

 

Chapter 24: DNS/BIND: Tracking Domain Names and Addresses 773

Introduction to DNS 774

About DNS 785

JumpStart I: Setting Up a DNS Cache 787

JumpStart II: Setting Up a Domain Using system-config-bind 789

Setting Up BIND 793

Troubleshooting 805

A Full-Functioned Nameserver 807

A Slave Server 810

A Split Horizon Server 811

Chapter Summary 816

Exercises 816

Advanced Exercises 817

 

Chapter 25: iptables: Setting Up a Firewall 819

How iptables Works 820

About iptables 822

JumpStart: Building a Firewall Using system-config-firewall 824

Anatomy of an iptables Command 825

Building a Set of Rules 826

system-config-firewall: Generates a Set of Rules 833

Sharing an Internet Connection Using NAT 835

Chapter Summary 839

Exercises 839

Advanced Exercises 839

 

Chapter 26: Apache (httpd): Setting Up a Web Server 841

Introduction 842

About Apache 842

JumpStart I: Getting Apache Up and Running 844

JumpStart II: Setting Up Apache Using system-config-httpd 846

Filesystem Layout 848

Configuration Directives 850

The Fedora/RHEL httpd.conf File 870

Redirects 873

Multiviews 874

Server-Generated Directory Listings (Indexing) 874

Virtual Hosts 874

Troubleshooting 875

Modules 876

webalizer: Analyzes Web Traffic 881

MRTG: Monitors Traffic Loads 882

Error Codes 882

Chapter Summary 883

Exercises 884

Advanced Exercises 884

 

Part VI: Programming Tools 885

 

Chapter 27: Programming the Bourne Again Shell 887

Control Structures 888

File Descriptors 921

Parameters and Variables 924

Builtin Commands 936

Expressions 950

Shell Programs 958

Chapter Summary 968

Exercises 970

Advanced Exercises 972

 

Chapter 28: The Perl Scripting Language 975

Introduction to Perl 976

Variables 983

Control Structures 991

Working with Files 1000

Sort 1003

Subroutines 1005

Regular Expressions 1007

CPAN Modules 1013

Examples 1015

Chapter Summary 1019

Exercises 1019

Advanced Exercises 1020

 

Part VII: Appendixes 1021

 

Appendix A: Regular Expressions 1023

Characters 1024

Delimiters 1024

Simple Strings 1024

Special Characters 1024

Rules 1027

Bracketing Expressions 1028

The Replacement String 1028

Extended Regular Expressions 1029

Appendix Summary 1031

 

Appendix B: Help 1033

Solving a Problem 1034

Finding Linux-Related Information 1035

Specifying a Terminal 1040

 

Appendix C: Security 1043

Encryption 1044

File Security 1049

Email Security 1049

Network Security 1050

Host Security 1053

Security Resources 1058

Appendix Summary 1061

 

Appendix D: The Free Software Definition 1063

 

Glossary 1067

Index 1117

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