Master All the Techniques You Need to Succeed with Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux
- Set up key Internet servers, step by step, including Samba, Apache, sendmail, DNS, FTP, and other Internet servers
- Automate and streamline administration with this edition’s outstanding new chapter on Perl scripting
- Master GUI-based admin tools and the powerful Linux command line (CLI)
In this book, one of the world’s leading Linux experts brings together all the knowledge you’ll need to succeed with Fedora or Red Hat Enterprise Linux in any real-world environment. Best-selling author Mark Sobell explains Linux clearly and effectively, focusing on skills you’ll actually use as an administrator, user, or programmer.
Sobell assumes no prior Linux knowledge. He starts at the beginning and walks you through every topic and task that matters, using easy-to-understand examples. Step by step, you’ll learn how to install and configure Linux from the accompanying DVD, navigate its graphical user interfaces, provide file/print sharing and Internet services, make sure Linux desktops and networks are as secure as possible, work with the powerful command line, administer Linux efficiently, and even automate administration with Perl scripts.
Mark Sobell has taught hundreds of thousands of Linux and UNIX professionals. He knows every Linux nook and cranny–and he never forgets what it’s like to be new to Linux. Whatever you’ll want to do with Linux–now or in the future–this book gives you everything you’ll need.
Compared with the other Linux books out there, A Practical Guide to Fedora™ and Red Hat® Enterprise Linux®, Fifth Edition, delivers
- Complete, up-to-the-minute coverage of Fedora 12 and RHEL 5
- Deeper coverage of the command line and the newest GUIs, including desktop customization
- More practical coverage of file sharing using Samba, NFS, and FTP
- More and better coverage of automating administration with Perl
- More usable, realistic coverage of Internet server configuration, including Apache, sendmail, NFS, DNS/BIND, and LDAP
- More state-of-the-art security techniques, including SELinux (Security Enhanced Linux), ACLs (Access Control Lists), firewall setup using both the Red Hat GUI and iptables, and a full chapter on OpenSSH
- More and better coverage of system/network administration tasks, including new coverage of network monitoring with Cacti
- Complete instructions on keeping Linux systems up-to-date using yum
- And much more, including a 500+ term glossary and a comprehensive index
Includes DVD! Get the full version of the Fedora 12 release!
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About the Author
Mark G. Sobell is President of Sobell Associates Inc., a consulting firm that specializes in UNIX/Linux training, support, and custom software development. He has more than twenty-five years of experience working with UNIX and Linux systems and is the author of many best-selling books, including A Practical Guide to Linux® Commands, Editors, and Shell Programming, Second Edition, and A Practical Guide to Ubuntu Linux®, Second Edition, both from Prentice Hall, and A Practical Guide to the UNIX System from Addison-Wesley.
Read an Excerpt
Whether you are an end user, a system administrator, or a little of each, this book explains with step-by-step examples how to get the most out of a Fedora or Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) system. In 28 chapters, this book takes you from installing a Fedora or Red Hat Enterprise Linux system through understanding its inner workings to setting up secure servers that run on the system.The Audience
This book is designed for a wide range of readers. It does not require you to have programming experience, but having some experience using a general-purpose computer is helpful. This book is appropriate for
- Students who are taking a class in which they use Linux
- Home users who want to set up and/or run Linux
- Professionals who use Linux at work
- System administrators who need an understanding of Linux and the tools that are available to them
- Computer science students who are studying the Linux operating system
- Programmers who need to understand the Linux programming environment
- Technical executives who want to get a grounding in Linux
A Practical Guide to Fedora™ and Red Hat® Enterprise Linux®, College Edition, gives you a broad understanding of many facets of Linux, from installing Fedora/RHEL through using and customizing it. No matter what your background, this book gives you the knowledge you need to get on with your work. You will come away from this book understanding how to use Linux, and this book will remain a valuable reference for years tocome.Overlap
If you read A Practical Guide to Linux® Commands, Editors, and Shell Programming, you will notice some overlap between that book and the one you are reading now. The first chapter, and the chapters on the utilities, the filesystem, programming tools, and the appendix on regular expressions are very similar in the two books, as are the three chapters on the Bourne Again Shell (
bash). Chapters that appear in this book but not in A Practical Guide to Linux® Commands, Editors, and Shell Programming include Chapters 2 and 3 (installation), Chapters 4 and 8 (Fedora/RHEL and the GUI), Chapter 10 (networking), all of the chapters in Part IV (system administration) and Part V (servers), and Appendix C (security).This Book Includes Fedora 8 on a DVD
A Practical Guide to Fedora™ and Red Hat® Enterprise Linux®, College Edition, includes a DVD that you can use to install or upgrade to Fedora 8. Chapter 2 helps you get ready to install Fedora. Chapter 3 provides step-by-step instructions for installing Fedora from this DVD. This book guides you through learning about, using, and administrating Fedora or Red Hat Enterprise Linux.What Is New in This Edition?
The college edition of A Practical Guide to Fedora™ and Red Hat® Enterprise Linux® covers Fedora 8 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 5. There is a new section on LDAP in Chapter 21. Chapters 2 and 3 cover booting into a live session and installing from live media. All the changes, large and small, that have been made to Fedora/RHEL since the previous edition of this book have been incorporated into the explanations and examples.Features of This Book
This book is designed and organized so you can get the most out of it in the shortest amount of time. You do not have to read this book straight through in page order. Once you are comfortable using Linux, you can use this book as a reference: Look up a topic of interest in the table of contents or index and read about it. Or think of the book as a catalog of Linux topics: Flip through the pages until a topic catches your eye. The book includes many pointers to Web sites where you can get additional information: Consider the Internet an extension of this book.
A Practical Guide to Fedora™ and Red Hat® Enterprise Linux®, College Edition, is structured with the following features:
- In this book, the term Fedora/RHEL refers to both Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Features that apply to only one operating system or the other are marked as such using these indicators:
- Optional sections enable you to read the book at different levels, returning to more difficult material when you are ready to delve into it.
- Caution boxes highlight procedures that can easily go wrong, giving you guidance before you run into trouble.
- Tip boxes highlight ways that you can save time by doing something differently or situations when it may be useful or just interesting to have additional information.
- Security boxes point out places where you can make a system more secure. The security appendix presents a quick background in system security issues.
- Concepts are illustrated by practical examples throughout the book.
- Chapter summaries review the important points covered in each chapter.
- Review exercises are included at the end of each chapter for readers who want to further hone their skills. Answers to even-numbered exercises are at www.sobell.com.
- This book provides resources for finding software on the Internet. It also explains how download and install software using
yum, BitTorrent, and, for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Red Hat Network (RHN).
- The glossary defines more than 500 common terms.
- The book describes in detail many important GNU tools, including the
gcc C compiler, the
gdb debugger, the GNU Configure and Build System,
- Pointers throughout the text provide help in obtaining online documentation from many sources including the local system, the Red Hat Web site, the Fedora Project Web site, and other locations on the Internet.
- Many useful URLs (Internet addresses) point to sites where you can obtain software, security programs and information, and more.
- The comprehensive index helps you locate topics quickly and easily.
This book contains a lot of information. This section distills and summarizes its contents. You may want to review the table of contents for more detail. This book covers the following.Installation
- Describes how to download from the Internet and burn both Fedora Desktop Live Media CD/DVDs and Fedora Install Media DVDs.
- Helps you plan the layout of the system’s hard disk and assists you in using Disk Druid or the GNOME graphical partition editor (
gparted) to partition the hard disk.
- Explains how to use the Logical Volume Manager (LVM2) to set up, grow, and migrate logical volumes, which are similar in function to traditional disk partitions.
- Discusses booting into a live Fedora session and installing Fedora from that session.
- Describes in detail how to install Fedora/RHEL from a DVD, CD, a hard disk, or over a network using FTP, NFS, or HTTP.
- Covers boot command line parameters (
FEDORA), responses to the boot: prompt (
RHEL), and explains how to work with Anaconda, Fedora/RHEL’s installation program.
- Covers the details of customizing the X.org version of the X Window System.
- Introduces the graphical desktop (GUI) and explains how to use desktop tools including the panel, Panel menu, Main menu, Window Operations menu, Desktop menu, Desktop switcher, and terminal emulator.
- Presents the KDE desktop and covers using Konqueror to manage files, start programs, and browse the Web.
- Covers the GNOME desktop and the Nautilus file manager.
- Explains how to customize your desktop to please your senses and help you work more efficiently.
- Covers the Bourne Again Shell (
bash) in three chapters, including an entire chapter on shell programming that includes many sample shell scripts.
- Explains the command line interface (CLI) and introduces more than 30 command line utilities.
- Presents a tutorial on the
vi work-alike) textual editor.
- Covers types of networks, network protocols, and network utilities.
- Explains hostnames, IP addresses, and subnets, and explores how to use
dig to look up domain names and IP addresses on the Internet.
- Covers distributed computing and the client/server model.
- Explains how to use the Fedora/RHEL
system-config-* tools to configure the display, DNS, Apache, a network interface, and more. You can also use these tools to add users and manage local and remote printers. (See page 429 for a list of these tools.)
- Describes how to use the following tools to download software and keep a system current:
yum—Downloads and installs software packages from the Internet, keeping a system up-to-date and resolving dependencies as it processes the packages. You can run
yum manually or set it up to run automatically every night.
- BitTorrent—Good for distributing large amounts of data such as the Fedora installation DVD and the live media CD/DVD. The more people who use BitTorrent to download a file, the faster it works.
up2date—The Red Hat Enterprise Linux tool for keeping system software current.
- Covers graphical system administration tools, including the Main menu, GNOME and KDE menu systems, KDE Control Center, and KDE Control panel.
- Explains system operation, including the boot process, init scripts, emergency mode, rescue mode, single-user and multiuser modes, and steps to take if the system crashes.
- Describes files, directories, and filesystems, including types of files and filesystems,
fstab (the filesystem table), automatically mounted filesystems, filesystem integrity checks, filesystem utilities, and fine-tuning of filesystems.
- Covers backup utilities including
- Explains how to customize and build a Linux kernel.
- Helps you manage basic system security issues using
ssh (secure shell), vsftpd (secure FTP server), Apache (the httpd Web server),
iptables (firewall), and more.
- Presents a complete section on SELinux (Security Enhanced Linux), including instructions for using
system-config-selinux to configure SELinux.
- Covers using
system-config-firewall to set up a basic firewall to protect the system.
- Provides instructions on using
iptables to share an Internet connection over a LAN and to build advanced firewalls.
- Describes how to set up a
chroot jail to protect a server system.
- Explains how to use TCP wrappers to control who can access a server.
- Covers controlling servers using the xinetd superserver.
- Explains how to set up and use the most popular Linux servers, providing a chapter on each: Apache, Samba, OpenSSH, sendmail, DNS, NFS, FTP, NIS and LDAP,
iptables (all of which are included with Fedora/RHEL).
- Describes how to set up a CUPS printer server.
- Describes how to set up and use a DHCP server.
- Covers programming tools including the GNU
gcc compiler, the
make, and CVS for managing source code.
- Explains how to debug a C program.
- Describes how to work with shared libraries.
- Provides a complete chapter on shell programming using
bash, including many examples.
Chapter 1 presents a brief history of Linux and explains some of the features that make it a cutting-edge operating system. The “Conventions Used in This Book” (page 16) section details the typefaces and terminology this book uses.
Part I, “Installing Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux,” discusses how to install Fedora/RHEL. Chapter 2 presents an overview of the process of installing Fedora/RHEL, including hardware requirements, downloading and burning a CD/DVD, and planning the layout of the hard disk. Chapter 3 is a step-by-step guide to installing either Fedora or Red Hat Enterprise Linux and covers installing from a CD/DVD, a live session, a local hard disk, and installing over the network using FTP, NFS, or HTTP. It also shows how to set up the X Window System and customize your graphical user interface (GUI).
Part II, “Getting Started with Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux,” familiarizes you with Fedora/RHEL, covering logging in, the GUI, utilities, the filesystem, and the shell. Chapter 4 introduces desktop features, including the panel and the Main menu; explains how to use Konqueror to manage files, run programs, and browse the Web; and covers finding documentation, dealing with login problems, and using the window manager. Chapter 5 introduces the shell command line interface, describes more than 30 useful utilities, and presents a tutorial on the
vim text editor. Chapter 6 discusses the Linux hierarchical filesystem, covering files, filenames, pathnames, working with directories, access permissions, and hard and symbolic links. Chapter 7 introduces the Bourne Again Shell (
bash) and discusses command line arguments and options, redirecting input to and output from commands, running programs in the background, and using the shell to generate and expand filenames.
TIP: Experienced users may want to skim Part II
If you have used a UNIX or Linux system before, you may want to skim over or skip some or all of the chapters in Part II. All readers should take a look at “Conventions Used in This Book” (page 16), which explains the typographic and layout conventions that this book uses, and “Getting the Facts: Where to Find Documentation” (page 114), which points out both local and remote sources of Linux/Fedora/RHEL documentation.
Part III, “Digging into Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux,” goes into more detail about working with the system. Chapter 8 discusses the GUI and includes a section on how to run a graphical program on a remote system and have the display appear locally. The section on GNOME describes GNOME utilities and explains how to use the Nautilus file manager, including its spatial view, while the section on KDE explains more about Konqueror and KDE utilities. Chapter 9 extends the
bash coverage from Chapter 7, explaining how to redirect error output, avoid overwriting files, and work with job control, processes, startup files, important shell builtin commands, parameters, shell variables, and aliases. Chapter 10 explains networks, network security, and the Internet and discusses types of networks, subnets, protocols, addresses, hostnames, and various network utilities. The section on distributed computing describes the client/server model and some of the servers you can use on a network. Details of setting up and using clients and servers are reserved until Part V.
Part IV covers system administration. Chapter 11 discusses core concepts such as Superuser, SELinux (Security Enhanced Linux), system operation, general information about how to set up a server, DHCP, and PAM. Chapter 12 explains the Linux filesystem, going into detail about types of files, including special and device files, the use of
fsck to verify the integrity of and repair filesystems, and the use of
tune2fs to change filesystem parameters. Chapter 13 explains how to keep a system up-todate by downloading software from the Internet and installing it, including examples of using yum, BitTorrent, and RHEL’s
up2date utility. Chapter 14 explains how to set up the CUPS printing system so you can print on the local system as well as on remote systems. Chapter 15 details customizing and building a Linux kernel. Chapter 16 covers additional administration tasks, including setting up user accounts, backing up files, scheduling automated tasks, tracking disk usage, and solving general problems. Chapter 17 explains how to set up a local area network (LAN), including both hardware (including wireless) and software setup.
Part V goes into detail about setting up and running servers and connecting to them with clients. The chapters in this part of the book cover the following clients/servers:
- OpenSSH—Set up an OpenSSH server and use
sftp to communicate securely over the Internet.
- FTP—Set up a vsftpd secure FTP server and use any of several FTP clients to exchange files with the server.
- Mail—Configure sendmail and use Webmail, POP3, or IMAP to retrieve email; use SpamAssassin to combat spam.
- NIS and LDAP—Set up NIS to facilitate system administration of a LAN and LDAP to distribute information and authenticate users over a network.
- NFS—Share filesystems between systems on a network.
- Samba—Share filesystems and printers between Windows and Linux systems.
- DNS/BIND—Set up a domain nameserver to let other systems on the Internet know the names and IP addresses of local systems they may need to contact.
- iptables—Share a single Internet connection between systems on a LAN and set up a firewall to protect local systems.
- Apache—Set up an HTTP server that serves Web pages that browsers can display.
Part VI covers programming. Chapter 27 discusses programming tools and environments available under Fedora/RHEL, including the C programming language and debugger,
make, shared libraries, and source code management using CVS. Chapter 28 goes into greater depth about shell programming using
bash, with the discussion being enhanced by extensive examples.
Part VII includes appendixes on regular expressions, helpful Web sites, system security, and free software. This part also includes an extensive glossary with more than 500 entries and a comprehensive index.Supplements
The author’s home page (www.sobell.com) contains downloadable listings of the longer programs from this book as well as pointers to many interesting and useful Linux sites on the World Wide Web, a list of corrections to the book, answers to even-numbered exercises, and a solicitation for corrections, comments, and suggestions.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Welcome to Linux 1
The GNU—Linux Connection 2
The Linux 2.6 Kernel 5
The Heritage of Linux: UNIX 5
What Is So Good About Linux? 6
Overview of Linux 10
Additional Features of Linux 14
Conventions Used in This Book 16
Chapter Summary 19
Part I: Installing Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 21
Chapter 2: Installation Overview 23
The Desktop Live CD and the Install DVD 24
Planning the Installation 24
The Installation Process 39
The Medium: Where Is the Source Data? 40
Downloading a CD/DVD (FEDORA) 41
Checking and Burning the CD/DVD 45
Rescue Selection of the Install DVD 46
Gathering Information About the System 46
Finding the Installation Manual 47
More Information 48
Chapter Summary 48
Advanced Exercises 49
Chapter 3: Step-by-Step Installation 51
Running a Fedora Live Session 52
Installing Fedora/RHEL 55
Installation Tasks 68
The X Window System 84
Chapter Summary 85
Advanced Exercises 86
Part II: Getting Started with Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 87
Chapter 4: Introduction to Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 89
Curbing Your Power (Superuser/root Privileges) 90
A Tour of the Fedora/RHEL Desktop 90
Getting the Most Out of the Desktop 109
Updating, Installing, and Removing Software Packages 122
Where to Find Documentation 124
More About Logging In 132
Working from the Command Line 138
Controlling Windows: Advanced Operations 141
Chapter Summary 143
Advanced Exercises 145
Chapter 5: The Linux Utilities 147
Special Characters 148
Basic Utilities 149
Working with Files 151
(Pipe): Communicates Between Processes 158
Four More Utilities 159
Compressing and Archiving Files 161
Locating Commands 166
Obtaining User and System Information 168
Communicating with Other Users 172
Tutorial: Creating and Editing a File Using vim 174
Chapter Summary 181
Advanced Exercises 185
Chapter 6: The Linux Filesystem 187
The Hierarchical Filesystem 188
Directory Files and Ordinary Files 188
Directory Commands 195
Working with Directories 200
Access Permissions 202
ACLs: Access Control Lists 207
Chapter Summary 218
Advanced Exercises 222
Chapter 7: The Shell 223
The Command Line 224
Standard Input and Standard Output 230
Running a Program in the Background 241
Filename Generation/Pathname Expansion 243
Chapter Summary 248
Utilities and Builtins Introduced in This Chapter 249
Advanced Exercises 251
Part III: Digging into Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 253
Chapter 8: Linux GUIs: X and GNOME 255
X Window System 256
The Nautilus File Browser Window 264
The Nautilus Spatial View 270
GNOME Utilities 272
Chapter Summary 276
Advanced Exercises 277
Chapter 9: The Bourne Again Shell 279
Shell Basics 281
Parameters and Variables 299
Special Characters 313
Controlling bash Features and Options 338
Processing the Command Line 342
Chapter Summary 351
Advanced Exercises 355
Chapter 10: Networking and the Internet 357
Types of Networks and How They Work 359
Communicate Over a Network 374
Network Utilities 376
Distributed Computing 383
WWW: World Wide Web 395
Chapter Summary 397
Advanced Exercises 399
Part IV: System Administration 401
Chapter 11: System Administration: Core Concepts 403
System Administrator and Superuser 405
Rescue Mode 411
The Upstart Event-Based init Daemon (FEDORA) 417
System Operation 424
System Administration Utilities 436
Setting Up a Server 441
nsswitch.conf: Which Service to Look at First 455
Chapter Summary 464
Advanced Exercises 465
Chapter 12: Files, Directories, and Filesystems 467
Important Files and Directories 468
File Types 480
Chapter Summary 495
Advanced Exercises 496
Chapter 13: Downloading and Installing Software 497
yum: Keeps the System Up-to-Date 498
Adding and Removing Software Packages 505
rpm: Red Hat Package Manager 510
Installing Non-rpm Software 513
Keeping Software Up-to-Date 515
wget: Downloads Files Noninteractively 517
Chapter Summary 518
Advanced Exercises 518
Chapter 14: Printing with CUPS 519
JumpStart I: Configuring a Local Printer 521
system-config-printer: Configuring a Printer 522
JumpStart II: Setting Up a Local or Remote Printer Using the CUPS Web Interface 527
Traditional UNIX Printing 530
Configuring Printers 532
Printing from Windows 538
Printing to Windows 540
Chapter Summary 540
Advanced Exercises 541
Chapter 15: Rebuilding the Linux Kernel 543
Preparing the Source Code 544
Read the Documentation 546
Configuring and Compiling the Linux Kernel 547
Installing the Kernel and Associated Files 550
Rebooting the System 550
Boot Loader 551
dmesg: Displays Kernel Messages 553
Chapter Summary 553
Advanced Exercises 554
Chapter 16: Administration Tasks 555
Configuring User and Group Accounts 556
Backing Up Files 558
Scheduling Tasks 565
System Reports 566
parted: Reports on and Partitions a Hard Disk 568
Keeping Users Informed 572
Creating Problems 572
Solving Problems 574
Chapter Summary 592
Advanced Exercises 593
Chapter 17: Configuring and Monitoring a LAN 595
Setting Up the Hardware 596
Configuring the Systems 598
NetworkManager: Configures Network Connections 599
The Network Configuration Window (system-config-network) 601
iwconfig: Configures a Wireless NIC 605
Setting Up Servers 606
Introduction to Cacti 607
More Information 617
Chapter Summary 617
Advanced Exercises 618
Part V: Using Clients and Setting Up Servers 619
Chapter 18: OpenSSH: Secure Network Communication 621
About OpenSSH 622
OpenSSH Clients 625
sshd: OpenSSH Server 633
Tunneling/Port Forwarding 638
Chapter Summary 641
Advanced Exercises 642
Chapter 19: FTP: Transferring Files Across a Network 643
More Information 645
FTP Client 645
FTP Server (vsftpd) 654
Chapter Summary 666
Advanced Exercises 667
Chapter 20: sendmail: Setting Up Mail Clients, Servers, and More 669
JumpStart I: Configuring sendmail on a Client 672
JumpStart II: Configuring sendmail on a Server 673
How sendmail Works 674
Configuring sendmail 677
Additional Email Tools 682
Authenticated Relaying 689
Alternatives to sendmail 691
Chapter Summary 692
Advanced Exercises 693
Chapter 21: NIS and LDAP 695
Introduction to NIS 696
How NIS Works 696
Setting Up an NIS Client 699
Setting Up an NIS Server 703
Setting Up an LDAP Server 713
Chapter Summary 723
Advanced Exercises 724
Chapter 22: NFS: Sharing Filesystems 727
More Information 730
Setting Up an NFS Client 730
Setting Up an NFS Server 736
automount: Automatically Mounts Directory Hierarchies 744
Chapter Summary 746
Advanced Exercises 747
Chapter 23: Samba: Integrating Linux and Windows 749
About Samba 751
JumpStart: Configuring a Samba Server Using system-config-samba 753
swat: Configures a Samba Server 755
Manually Configuring a Samba Server 759
Accessing Linux Shares from Windows 765
Accessing Windows Shares from Linux 766
Chapter Summary 770
Advanced Exercises 771
Chapter 24: DNS/BIND: Tracking Domain Names and Addresses 773
Introduction to DNS 774
About DNS 785
JumpStart I: Setting Up a DNS Cache 787
JumpStart II: Setting Up a Domain Using system-config-bind 789
Setting Up BIND 793
A Full-Functioned Nameserver 807
A Slave Server 810
A Split Horizon Server 811
Chapter Summary 816
Advanced Exercises 817
Chapter 25: iptables: Setting Up a Firewall 819
How iptables Works 820
About iptables 822
JumpStart: Building a Firewall Using system-config-firewall 824
Anatomy of an iptables Command 825
Building a Set of Rules 826
system-config-firewall: Generates a Set of Rules 833
Sharing an Internet Connection Using NAT 835
Chapter Summary 839
Advanced Exercises 839
Chapter 26: Apache (httpd): Setting Up a Web Server 841
About Apache 842
JumpStart I: Getting Apache Up and Running 844
JumpStart II: Setting Up Apache Using system-config-httpd 846
Filesystem Layout 848
Configuration Directives 850
The Fedora/RHEL httpd.conf File 870
Server-Generated Directory Listings (Indexing) 874
Virtual Hosts 874
webalizer: Analyzes Web Traffic 881
MRTG: Monitors Traffic Loads 882
Error Codes 882
Chapter Summary 883
Advanced Exercises 884
Part VI: Programming Tools 885
Chapter 27: Programming the Bourne Again Shell 887
Control Structures 888
File Descriptors 921
Parameters and Variables 924
Builtin Commands 936
Shell Programs 958
Chapter Summary 968
Advanced Exercises 972
Chapter 28: The Perl Scripting Language 975
Introduction to Perl 976
Control Structures 991
Working with Files 1000
Regular Expressions 1007
CPAN Modules 1013
Chapter Summary 1019
Advanced Exercises 1020
Part VII: Appendixes 1021
Appendix A: Regular Expressions 1023
Simple Strings 1024
Special Characters 1024
Bracketing Expressions 1028
The Replacement String 1028
Extended Regular Expressions 1029
Appendix Summary 1031
Appendix B: Help 1033
Solving a Problem 1034
Finding Linux-Related Information 1035
Specifying a Terminal 1040
Appendix C: Security 1043
File Security 1049
Email Security 1049
Network Security 1050
Host Security 1053
Security Resources 1058
Appendix Summary 1061
Appendix D: The Free Software Definition 1063