Female Breast Examination: A Theoretical and Practical Guide to Breast Diagnosis

Female Breast Examination: A Theoretical and Practical Guide to Breast Diagnosis

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1986)

$139.99
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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783540163022
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 08/14/1986
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1986
Pages: 228
Product dimensions: 6.69(w) x 9.61(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

1 Sources of Information.- 1.1 History of the Disease.- 1.1.1 Chief Complaint.- 1.1.2 Past Medical History.- 1.1.3 Characteristics of the Menstrual Cycle.- 1.1.4 Medical and Psychologic Background.- 1.1.5 Social and Family Background.- 1.1.6 Family History.- 1.2 The Clinical Picture.- 1.2.1 Functional Signs.- 1.2.1.1 Pain.- 1.2.1.2 Galactorrhea.- 1.2.1.3 Sectorial Discharge.- 1.2.2 Physical Examination.- 1.2.2.1 Inspection.- 1.2.2.2 Palpation.- 1.2.2.3 Combined Palpation.- 1.3 Transillumination.- 1.3.1 Diaphanoscopy.- 1.3.1.1 Principle.- 1.3.1.2 Material.- 1.3.1.3 Technique.- 1.3.1.4 Interpretation.- 1.3.2 Diaphanometry.- 1.3.2.1 Principle.- 1.3.2.2 Material.- 1.3.2.3 Technique.- 1.3.2.4 Interpretation.- 1.3.2.5 Somanetics.- 1.4 Ultrasonography.- 1.4.1 A Mode.- 1.4.1.1 Principle.- 1.4.1.2 Material.- 1.4.1.3 Technique.- 1.4.1.4 Interpretation.- 1.4.2 B Mode (Echotomography).- 1.4.2.1 Principle.- 1.4.2.2 Material.- 1.4.2.3 Technique.- 1.4.2.4 Interpretation.- 1.4.3 TM Mode (Time Motion).- 1.4.3.1 Principle.- 1.4.3.2 Material.- 1.4.3.3 Technique.- 1.4.3.4 Interpretation.- 1.4.4 C Mode.- 1.4.5 Transsonography.- 1.5 Roentgenographic Diagnosis.- 1.5.1 Mammography.- 1.5.1.1 Principle.- 1.5.1.2 Material.- 1.5.1.3 Technique.- 1.5.1.4 Interpretation of the Overall Structure.- 1.5.1.5 Interpretation of Abnormalities.- 1.5.2 Galactography.- 1.5.2.1 Technique.- 1.5.2.2 Interpretation.- 1.5.3 Cystography.- 1.5.3.1 Technique.- 1.5.3.2 Interpretation.- 1.5.4 Tomography.- 1.5.4.1 Mechanical Tomography.- 1.5.4.2 Computed Tomography.- 1.6 Cytodiagnosis.- 1.6.1 Needle Biopsy.- 1.6.1.1 Principles.- 1.6.1.2 Biopsy Material.- 1.6.1.3 Biopsy Technique.- 1.6.2 Cytodiagnosis of a Discharge.- 1.6.3 Cytodiagnosis of Cystic Fluid.- 1.7 Thermography.- 1.7.1 Principles of Thermography.- 1.7.1.1 Physiopathologic Findings.- 1.7.1.2 Clinical Findings.- 1.7.2 Physical Principles and Materials.- 1.7.2.1 Physical Principles of Contact Thermography.- 1.7.2.2 Physical Principles of Telethermography.- 1.7.3 Thermographic Techniques.- 1.7.3.1 Special Aspects of Contact Thermography.- 1.7.3.2 Special Aspects of Telethermography.- 1.7.3.3 Some Easily Avoided Pitfalls.- 1.7.4 Thermographic Interpretation.- 1.7.4.1 Basic Signs.- 1.7.4.2 Diagnostic Classification.- 1.7.4.3 Prognostic Classification.- 1.7.4.4 Interpretation and Follow-up.- 1.8 Invasive Examination.- 1.8.1 Nonsurgical Biopsy.- 1.8.2 Open Biopsy.- 1.8.2.1 Preoperative Mammographie Localization.- 1.8.2.2 Pathologic Study.- 1.8.2.3 Specimen Radiography.- 1.9 Magnetic Resonance Imaging.- 2 Normal Breasts.- 2.1 Breast Tissue and Examination Findings.- 2.1.1 Lactiferous-Connective Tissue Network.- 2.1.2 “Passive” Mesenchyma.- 2.1.3 Blood Vessels, Lymphatic System, Nerves.- 2.1.3.1 Arteries.- 2.1.3.2 Veins.- 2.1.3.3 Lymphatics.- 2.1.3.4 Nerves.- 2.1.4 Areolar-Nipple Area.- 2.1.4.1 Nipple.- 2.1.4.2 Areola.- 2.1.4.3 Retroareolar Region.- 2.1.5 Skin.- 2.2 Organic-Functional Variations Related to Normal Sex Hormone Activity.- 2.2.1 Prepuberty.- 2.2.2 Puberty.- 2.2.3 Period of Regular Menstrual Cycles.- 2.2.3.1 First Phase of the Cycle.- 2.2.3.2 Second Phase of the Cycle.- 2.2.4 Pregnancy and Lactation.- 2.2.4.1 Pregnancy.- 2.2.4.2 Lactation.- 2.2.5 Premenopause and Menopause.- 2.2.6 Postmenopause.- 3 Abnormalities and Breast Disease.- 3.1 Local Congenital Abnormalities.- 3.1.1 Embryologic Review.- 3.1.2 Anomalies by Deficiency.- 3.1.2.1 Hypoplasia.- 3.1.2.2 Aplasia.- 3.1.2.3 Amastia.- 3.1.3 Anomalies by Excess.- 3.1.3.1 Polythelia and Polymastia.- 3.1.3.2 Hypertrophy.- 3.1.4 Asymmetry.- 3.1.5 Nipple Inversion.- 3.2 From the Slight Hormonal Imbalance to the Organic-Functional Anomaly.- 3.2.1 Endocrine Anomalies.- 3.2.1.1 Estrogen Deficiency.- 3.2.1.2 Excess Estrogen and Progesterone.- 3.2.1.3 Estrogen-Progesterone Imbalance.- 3.2.1.4 Excess Prolactin.- 3.2.2 Diseases Causing Endocrine Anomalies.- 3.3 Mastosis.- 3.3.1 Apparently Isolated Lesions.- 3.3.1.1 Solid, Well-Delineated Masses.- 3.3.1.2 Poorly Delineated Solid Masses.- 3.3.1.3 Dystrophic Cysts.- 3.3.1.4 Lactiferous Ectasia.- 3.3.1.5 Papillary Adenomas.- 3.3.1.6 Galactocele and “Oil Cyst”.- 3.3.2 Diffuse Mastosis.- 3.3.2.1 General Features.- 3.3.2.2 Lobular Dystrophy.- 3.3.2.3 Papillary Adenomatosis.- 3.3.3 The Examining Physician When Confronted with Mastosis.- 3.4 Benign Mesenchymatous Tumors.- 3.4.1 Common Lipoma.- 3.4.2 Fibroadenolipoma (or Hamartoma).- 3.4.3 Leiomyomas.- 3.4.4 Abrikossof’s Tumor.- 3.5 Carcinoma.- 3.5.1 Characteristic Signs of Malignancy.- 3.5.1.1 Clinical.- 3.5.1.2 Transillumination.- 3.5.1.3 Ultrasonography.- 3.5.1.4 Mammography.- 3.5.1.5 Thermography.- 3.5.1.6 Needle Biopsy.- 3.5.2 Determining the Prognosis.- 3.5.2.1 Based on Radiologic-Clinical Findings.- 3.5.2.2 Based on Thermographic Findings.- 3.5.2.3 Based on Cytologic Findings.- 3.5.2.4 Based on Histologie Findings.- 3.5.3 Types of Carcinoma.- 3.5.3.1 Epithelioma.- 3.5.3.2 Sarcoma.- 3.5.3.3 Secondary Malignant Breast Lesions.- 3.5.3.4 Occult Carcinoma.- 3.5.3.5 False Appearances of Carcinoma.- 3.5.3.6 Treated Carcinoma.- 3.5.3.7 Follow-up After Primary Treatment.- 3.6 Cutaneous and Nipple-Areolar Disease.- 3.6.1 Benign Florid Papillomatosis of the Nipple.- 3.6.2 Subareolar Abscess.- 3.6.3 Sebaceous Cysts.- 3.6.4 Other Nonspecific Skin Lesions.- 3.6.5 Primary Melanoma of the Breast.- 3.7 Vascular Disease.- 3.7.1 Mondor’s Disease.- 3.7.2 Breast Infarction.- 3.7.3 Hematoma.- 3.7.4 Fat Necrosis.- 3.8 Breast Trauma.- 3.8.1 Solitary Closed Trauma.- 3.8.2 Microtrauma of the Breast.- 3.8.3 Surgical Trauma and Breast Injury.- 3.8.4 Foreign Bodies.- 3.9 The Surgical Breast.- 3.9.1 Resections.- 3.9.1.1 Open Biopsy.- 3.9.1.2 Extracapsular Mastectomy.- 3.9.1.3 Reduction Mammoplasty.- 3.9.2 Plastic Surgery Not Affecting the Gland.- 3.9.2.1 Treatment for Nipple Inversion.- 3.9.2.2 Suspension Mammoplasty.- 3.9.3 Augmentation Mammoplasty.- 3.10 Mastitis.- 3.10.1 Acute Mastitis.- 3.10.1.1 Confirming the Mastitis.- 3.10.1.2 Determining the Type of Extension.- 3.10.1.3 Determining the Cause of Mastitis.- 3.10.1.4 The Course of Acute Mastitis.- 3.10.2 Chronic Infectious Mastitis.- 3.10.3 Subacute and Chronic Tuberculosis, Cold Abscess.- 3.10.4 Mycosis and Parasitosis.- 3.10.4.1 Actinomycosis.- 3.10.4.2 Echinococcal Infestation.- 3.10.4.3 Filariasis.- 4 Examination Procedure.- 4.1 Cancer Screening.- 4.1.1 Risk of Cancer.- 4.1.2 Carcinoma.- 4.1.2.1 Telethermography.- 4.1.2.2 Ultrasonography.- 4.1.2.3 Mammography.- 4.1.2.4 The Clinical Examination.- 4.2 Examination and Diagnosis of a Breast Disease.- 4.3 Follow-up of a Breast Disease.- 4.4 Diagnosis of Cancer.- 5 Analysis.- 5.1 Detection.- 5.2 Diagnosis of Cancer.- 5.3 Cancer Work-up.- 5.4 Final Analysis.- 5.4.1 Functional Examination.- 5.4.2 Organic Examination.- 5.4.2.1 Types of Breast Tissue.- 5.4.2.2 Is There a Lesion?.- 5.4.2.3 Is the Lesion Malignant?.- 5.4.3 Screening Factors.- 5.4.4 Suggested Plan.

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