Fit for Developing Software: Framework for Integrated Tests

Fit for Developing Software: Framework for Integrated Tests

by Rick Mugridge, Ward Cunningham

Paperback

$62.81 $64.99 Save 3% Current price is $62.81, Original price is $64.99. You Save 3%.
View All Available Formats & Editions
Choose Expedited Shipping at checkout for guaranteed delivery by Monday, April 1

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780321269348
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Publication date: 07/13/2005
Series: Robert C. Martin Series
Pages: 384
Product dimensions: 7.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.90(d)

About the Author

Rick Mugridge runs his own company, Rimu Research, and is an associate professor in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. He specializes in Agile software development, automated testing, test-driven development, and user interfaces. Rick is one of the world's leading developers of Fit fixtures and tools, and is the creator of the FitLibrary.

Ward Cunningham is widely respected for his contributions to the practices of object-oriented development, Extreme Programming, and software agility. Cofounder of Cunningham & Cunningham, Inc., he has served as Director of R&D at Wyatt Software and as principal engineer at the Tektronix Computer Research Laboratory. Ward led the creation of Fit, and is responsible for innovations ranging from the CRC design method to WikiWikiWeb.

Read an Excerpt

Fitness, agility, and balance apply as much to software development as they do to athletic activities. We can admire the movements of a highly skilled dancer, skier, or athlete. Gracefulness comes from wasting no energy on unnecessary tension or balance recovery, so that effort can be focused exactly where it is needed, exactly when it is needed. The expert is continuously making small adjustments to stay aligned and in balance. Agile responses to unexpected changes distinguish the expert from the nonexpert, as their rebalancing adjustments are fluid and subtle and go unnoticed by nonexperts.

Injury, pain, distractions, and poor concentration can wreck balance, reducing the expert's ability to respond well in a focused way. Much more effort is required to perform even at a substandard level.

A high degree of fitness and practice is needed in order to build the required concentration, balance, agility, and focused power. This, inevitably, is a process of refinement over time, with attention given to more subtle aspects of risk assessment and response as expertise increases.

The achievements of athletes have continued to improve over time, sometimes through changes that break assumptions about the activity or how best to train. Big changes are often met with skepticism but will slowly become accepted as the norm as they prove their worth.

When we look at the efforts of most software developers, we see a lot of energy being wasted. In the rush to get software completed, there is often little time to reflect on how to improve the way we do things, how to get that special fitness, balance, and agility that allow us to be graceful in our intellectual efforts in order to achieve inspired results with less effort.

We get unbalanced when we have to fix old bugs, losing flow. We often have to speculate about what's needed, and feedback is too slow. Our software becomes less than elegant and is difficult to change, with tensions and stresses building up in us and in our software.

This book is intended to help improve your fitness and agility in two areas of software development where we can make huge improvements to current practice. First, improving communication between the people who need the software and the people who develop it, as well as show you how to express the business rules that are at the heart of a software solution. Second, how to use automated testing to provide immediate and effective feedback so we can maintain balance and agility and avoid "injury."

The book also questions some common assumptions about the way in which software is developed. But we don't expect that you'll make a big leap of faith: We start with current practice and show how you make small yet effective improvements.

Just like the dancer and the athlete, you will have to do more than simply read about how to do this. It is also necessary to practice.

Rick Mugridge Ward Cunningham


Table of Contents

Foreword.

Preface.

Acknowledgments.

About the Authors.

1. Introduction.

The Need for Fit

The Value of Fit Tables

Fit and Business Roles

Organization of the Book

The Book's Use of Color

I. INTRODUCING FIT TABLES.

2. Communicating with Tables.

Fit Tables

Tables for Communicating

Tables for Testing

Tables, Fixtures, and a System Under Test

Reading Fit Tables

3. Testing Calculations with ColumnFixture Tables.

Calculating Discount

Reports: Traffic Lights

Calculating Credit

Selecting a Phone Number

Summary

Exercises

4. Testing Business Processes with ActionFixture Tables.

Buying Items

Actions on a Chat Server

Summary

Exercises

5. Testing Lists with RowFixture Tables.

Testing Lists Whose Order Is Unimportant

Testing Lists Whose Order Is Important

Summary

Exercises

6. Testing with Sequences of Tables.

Chat Room Changes

Discount Group Changes

Summary

Exercises

7. Creating Tables and Running Fit.

Using Spreadsheets for Tests

Organizing Tests in Test Suites

Using HTML for Tests

Summary

Exercises

8. Using FitNesse.

Introduction

Getting Started

Organizing Tests with Subwikis

Test Suites

Ranges of Values

Other Features

Summary

Exercises

9. Expecting Errors.

Expected Errors with Calculations

Expected Errors with Actions

Summary

10. FitLibrary Tables.

Flow-Style Actions with DoFixture

Expected Errors with DoFixture

Actions on Domain Objects with DoFixture

Setup

CalculateFixture Tables

Ordered List Tables

Testing Parts of a List

Summary

Exercises

11. A Variety of Tables.

Business Forms

Testing Associations

Two-Dimensional Images

Summary

Exercises

II. DEVELOPING TABLES FOR RENTAPARTYSOFTWARE.

12. Introducing Fit at RentAPartySoftware.

RentAPartySoftware

Development Issues

An Initial Plan

The Cast

The Rest of This Part

Summary

Exercises

13. Getting Started: Emily and Don's First Table.

Introduction

Choosing Where to Start

The Business Rule

Starting Simple

Adding the Grace Period

Adding High-Demand Items

Reports

Seth's Return

Summary

Exercises

14. Testing a Business Process: Cash Rentals.

Introduction

Cash Rentals

Split and Restructure

Which Client

Summary

Exercises

15. Tests Involving the Date and Time.

Introduction

Charging a Deposit

Dates

Business Transactions

Sad Paths

Reports

Summary

Exercises

16. Transforming Workflow Tests into Calculation Tests.

Introduction

Testing Calculations Instead

Using Durations

Reports

Summary

Exercises

17. Story Test-Driven Development with Fit.

Introduction

The Stories

The First Storytests

The Planning Game

Adding to the Storytests

Progress During the Iteration

Exploratory Testing at Iteration End

Summary

Exercises

18. Designing and Refactoring Tests to Communicate Ideas.

Principles of Test Design

Fit Tests for Business Rules

Workflow Tests

Calculation Tests

List Tests

Tests and Change

Automation of Tests

Summary

19. Closing for Nonprogrammers.

The Value of Fit Tables

Getting Fit at RentAPartySoftware

III. INTRODUCING FIT FIXTURES.

20. Connecting Tables and Applications.

Writing Fixtures

Fixtures and Traffic Lights

21. Column Fixtures.

Fixture CalculateDiscount

Extending Credit

Selecting a Phone Number

ColumnFixture in General

Summary

Exercises

22. Action Fixtures.

Buying Items

Changing State of Chat Room

ActionFixture in General

Summary

Exercises

23. List Fixtures.

Testing Unordered Lists

Testing Ordered Lists

Testing a List with Parameters

Summary

Exercises

24. Fixtures for Sequences of Tables.

Chat Room Fixtures

Discount Group Fixtures

Summary

Exercises

25. Using Other Values in Tables.

Standard Values

Values of Money

Values in FitNesse and the Flow Fixtures

Summary

Exercises

26. Installing and Running Fit.

Installing Fit and FitLibrary

Running Fit on Folders

Running Fit on HTML Files

Running Tests During the Build

Other Ways to Run Tests

Summary

27. Installing FitNesse.

Installation

Locating the Code

Larger-Scale Use with Virtual Wiki

Debugging FitNesse Tests

Summary

Exercises

28. FitLibrary Fixtures.

Flow-Style Actions with DoFixture

DoFixtures as Adapters

Using SetFixture

Expected Errors with DoFixture

Actions on Domain Objects with DoFixture

DoFixture in General

Setup

CalculateFixture Tables

Ordered-List Tables

Testing Parts of a List

Using Other Values in Flow Tables

Summary

Exercises

29. Custom Table Fixtures.

Business Forms

Testing Associations

Two-Dimensional Images

Summary

IV. DEVELOPING FIXTURES FOR RENTAPARTYSOFTWARE.

30. Fixtures and Adapting the Application.

Introduction

The Programmers' Perspective

System Architecture

Test Infecting for Improvements

The Rest of This Part

31. Emily's First Fixture.

The Table

Developing the Fixture

Summary

Exercises

32. Fixtures Testing Through the User Interface.

Introduction

Spike

The Fixtures

The Adapter

Showing Others

Summary

33. Restructuring the System for Testing.

Test Infecting

Slow Tests

Setup

Barriers to Testing

Transactions

Transaction Fixture

Split Domain and Data Source Layers

Reduce Interdependencies

Summary

34. Mocks and Clocks.

Introduction

Changing the Date

Time-Related Object Interactions

Date Formatting

Changing the Application in Small Steps

Summary

35. Running Calculation Tests Indirectly.

Testing Directly

Testing Indirectly

Summary

36. Closing for Programmers at RPS.

The Value of Fit Tables

Getting Fit at RPS

V. CUSTOM DEVELOPMENT.

37. The Architecture of Fit.

Running Fit

Parse Tree

doTable()

Counts in Class Fixture

The Fixture Subclasses

TypeAdapter

Summary

Exercises

38. Developing Custom Fixtures.

Using SetUpFixture

SetUpFixture

ImageFixture

Summary

39. Custom Runners.

Runners

Calculator Runner

Reading Tests from a Text File

Reading Tests from a Spreadsheet

Summary

40. Model-Based Test Generation.

Symmetries: Operations That Cancel Each Other

Generate a Simple Sequence

Generate an Interleaved Sequence

Summary

Exercises

VI. APPENDICES.

Appendix A: Background Material.

Testing

Agile Software Development

Ubiquitous Language

Appendix B: Book Resources Web Site.

Appendix C: Fit and Other Programming Languages.

Table Portability

Other Programming Languages

Bibliography.

Index.

Preface

Fitness, agility, and balance apply as much to software development as they do to athletic activities. We can admire the movements of a highly skilled dancer, skier, or athlete. Gracefulness comes from wasting no energy on unnecessary tension or balance recovery, so that effort can be focused exactly where it is needed, exactly when it is needed. The expert is continuously making small adjustments to stay aligned and in balance. Agile responses to unexpected changes distinguish the expert from the nonexpert, as their rebalancing adjustments are fluid and subtle and go unnoticed by nonexperts.

Injury, pain, distractions, and poor concentration can wreck balance, reducing the expert's ability to respond well in a focused way. Much more effort is required to perform even at a substandard level.

A high degree of fitness and practice is needed in order to build the required concentration, balance, agility, and focused power. This, inevitably, is a process of refinement over time, with attention given to more subtle aspects of risk assessment and response as expertise increases.

The achievements of athletes have continued to improve over time, sometimes through changes that break assumptions about the activity or how best to train. Big changes are often met with skepticism but will slowly become accepted as the norm as they prove their worth.

When we look at the efforts of most software developers, we see a lot of energy being wasted. In the rush to get software completed, there is often little time to reflect on how to improve the way we do things, how to get that special fitness, balance, and agility that allow us to be graceful in our intellectual efforts in order to achieve inspired results with less effort.

We get unbalanced when we have to fix old bugs, losing flow. We often have to speculate about what's needed, and feedback is too slow. Our software becomes less than elegant and is difficult to change, with tensions and stresses building up in us and in our software.

This book is intended to help improve your fitness and agility in two areas of software development where we can make huge improvements to current practice. First, improving communication between the people who need the software and the people who develop it, as well as show you how to express the business rules that are at the heart of a software solution. Second, how to use automated testing to provide immediate and effective feedback so we can maintain balance and agility and avoid "injury."

The book also questions some common assumptions about the way in which software is developed. But we don't expect that you'll make a big leap of faith: We start with current practice and show how you make small yet effective improvements.

Just like the dancer and the athlete, you will have to do more than simply read about how to do this. It is also necessary to practice.

Rick Mugridge
Ward Cunningham

0321269349P06012005

Customer Reviews

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

See All Customer Reviews

Fit for Developing Software: Framework for Integrated Tests 3 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 1 reviews.
benfulton on LibraryThing 11 months ago
Did the job that it was asked to do. A simple, straightforward introduction to FIT with lots of specifics and examples of both what a Fit page would look like and what the source code behind it would. As such, at four years old it's completely out of date. I haven't got to read any of the more up-to-date books on the subject, but as I write this in 2009 Fitnesse, at least, is under active development, is changing all the time, and there are many available online tutorials. If you know nothing about Fit and can get this book for free, do so, but certainly look for something more up-to-date if you're going to fork over forty bucks for a book on Fit.