Flavor of Meat and Meat Products

Flavor of Meat and Meat Products


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Flavor of Meat and Meat Products by Fereidoon Shahidi

..its importance as a reference to meat scientists and flavor chemists is unquestionable.. - Food Technology'..a comprehensive source of current research on meat flavor.' - Trends in Food Science and Technology

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461359111
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 11/05/2012
Edition description: 1994
Pages: 301
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

1 Flavor of meat and meat products—an overview.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Meat flavour volatiles.- 1.3 Impact of processing and storage on meat flavour.- References.- 1 Species flavours.- 2 The flavour of beef.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Taste-active compounds.- 2.3 Flavour enhancers.- 2.4 Aroma components.- 2.4.1 Effect of heat on sugars and/or amino acids.- 2.4.2 Reactions of hydroxyfuranones.- 2.4.3 Thermal degradation of thiamine.- 2.4.4 Lipid oxidation/degradation.- 2.4.5 Selected aroma components of high sensory significance.- 2.5 Conclusion.- References.- 3 The flavour of pork.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Role of lipid degradation products in pork flavour.- 3.3 Heterocyclic constituents of pork aroma.- 3.4 Polysulphides in roasted pork.- 3.5 Effects of ingredients on the flavour of pork.- References.- 4 The flavour of poultry meat.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Primary odorants of chicken broth.- 4.3 Sulphur-containing compounds in chicken flavours.- 4.4 Lipid oxidation products in chicken flavour.- 4.5 Heterocyclic compounds in chicken flavour.- 4.5.1 Pyrazines.- 4.5.2 Pyridines.- 4.5.3 Pyrroles.- 4.5.4 Thiazoles.- 4.6 Conclusion.- References.- 5 Sheepmeat odour and flavour.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Assessment of sheepmeat odour and flavour by sensory panels and chemical analysis.- 5.3 The tissue source of mutton odour and flavour.- 5.4 Chemical components involved in sheepmeat odour and flavour.- 5.5 Factors affecting sheepmeat odour and flavour.- 5.5.1 Pre-slaughter factors.- 5.5.2 Post-slaughter factors.- 5.6 Concluding remarks.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 2 Role of meat constituents and processing on flavour.- 6 Umami flavour of meat.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Definitions.- 6.3 Historical background.- 6.4 Structural considerations.- 6.5 Stability.- 6.6 Synergism.- 6.7 Taste properties.- 6.8 Food occurrence.- 6.9 Umami compounds and meat flavour.- 6.10 Conclusions.- References.- 7 Lipid-derived off-flavours in meat—formation and inhibition.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Role of lipids in meat flavour.- 7.3 Lipid oxidation in meats.- 7.3.1 Role of haem and nonhaem iron as catalysts.- 7.3.2 Ferritin as a catalyst of lipid oxidation in meat.- 7.4 Initiation of lipid oxidation in muscle tissue.- 7.4.1 Initiators of the oxidation reaction.- 7.4.2 Enzymatic lipid oxidation.- 7.5 Prevention of lipid oxidation in meats.- 7.5.1 Antioxidant role of nitrite.- 7.5.2 Stabilization of meat lipids with nitrite-free curing mixtures.- 7.5.3 Vitamin E and meat quality.- 7.5.4 Spice extracts as antioxidants.- 7.6 Future research needs.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 8 Lipid oxidation in meat by-products: effect of antioxidants and Maillard reactants on volatiles.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Materials and methods.- 8.2.1 Materials.- 8.2.2 Chemical analysis of meat-meal.- 8.2.3 Analysis of volatiles in dry meat-meal.- 8.2.4 Analysis of volatiles in processed Maillard meat-meal water mixtures.- 8.3 Results and discussion.- References.- 9 Maillard reactions and meat flavour development.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.1.1 Meat flavour.- 9.2 The Maillard reaction.- 9.3 The Maillard reaction and meat flavour compounds.- 9.3.1 Low molecular weight precursors of meat flavour.- 9.3.2 Pyrazines.- 9.3.3 Sulphur compounds.- 9.3.4 Synthetic flavours from the Maillard reaction.- 9.4 Summary.- References.- 10 The flavour of cured meat.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Advantages of nitrite in the meat-curing process.- 10.3 Antioxidant role of nitrite in cured meats.- 10.4 Chemistry of cured-meat flavour.- 10.5 Conclusion.- References.- 11 Contribution of smoke flavourings to processed meats.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Pyrolysis of cellulose.- 11.3 Pyrolysis of hemicellulose.- 11.4 Pyrolysis of lignin.- 11.5 Smoke colour formation in processed meats.- 11.6 Smoke flavour in processed meats.- 11.7 Fractionation of smoke flavourings.- 11.8 Miscellaneous contributions of smoke flavourings.- 11.9 Summary.- References.- 12 Some aspects of the chemistry of meat flavour.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Meat flavour precursors.- 12.3 Reactions leading to meat aroma.- 12.3.1 Maillard reaction.- 12.3.2 Lipid degradation.- 12.4 Compounds contributing to meat flavour.- 12.5 Pathways for the formation of some meat aroma volatiles.- 12.6 Interaction of lipid with the Maillard reaction.- 12.6.1 Model systems.- 12.6.2 Meat volatiles from lipid—Maillard interaction.- References.- 3 Analytical methodologies.- 13 Instrumental methods of meat flavour analysis.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Refinements to routine GC in GC—MS.- 13.2.1 Multidimensional gas chromatography.- 13.2.2 Chiral phase gas chromatography.- 13.2.3 Preparative gas chromatography.- 13.3 Refinements to routine MS in GC—MS.- 13.3.1 High resolution mass spectrometry.- 13.3.2 Selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry.- 13.3.3 Chemical ionization mass spectrometry.- 13.3.4 Negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry.- 13.4 Alternatives to GC as a method of separation prior to identification.- 13.4.1 High-performance liquid chromatography.- 13.4.2 Supercritical fluid chromatography.- 13.4.3 Capillary zone electrophoresis.- 13.4.4 Mass spectrometry in MS—MS.- 13.5 Alternatives to MS as a method of identification following separation.- 13.5.1 Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.- 13.6 Conclusion.- References.- 14 Assessment of lipid oxidation and off-flavour development in meat and meat products.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Fatty acid analysis.- 14.3 Oxygen uptake.- 14.4 Conjugated dienes.- 14.5 Peroxide value.- 14.6 The 2-thiobarbituric acid test.- 14.6.1 Advantages and limitation of the TBA test.- 14.7 The Kries test.- 14.8 Anisidine value.- 14.9 Totox value.- 14.10 Carbonyl compounds.- 14.11 Hexanal and other carbonyl compounds.- 14.12 Pentane and other alkanes.- 14.13 Conclusions.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 15 Sensory and statistical analyses in meat flavour research.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 Sensory evaluation.- 15.2.1 Odour control.- 15.2.2 Lighting.- 15.2.3 General comfort.- 15.2.4 Preparation area.- 15.2.5 Sample preparation and serving.- 15.3 Sensory analysis of meat.- 15.3.1 Descriptive flavour panel.- 15.3.2 Descriptor development.- 15.4 Chemical and instrumental parameters.- 15.4.1 Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances.- 15.4.2 Direct gas chromatography.- 15.5 Correlations among sensory, chemical and instrumental analyses.- 15.5.1 Experimental designs.- 15.5.2 Statistical analysis.- 15.6 Summary.- References.

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