At a time when the relationship between 'the country' and 'the city' is in flux worldwide, the value and meanings of food associated with both places continue to be debated. Building upon the foundation of Raymond Williams' classic work, The Country and the City, this volume examines how conceptions of the country and the city invoked in relation to food not only reflect their changing relationship but have also been used to alter the very dynamics through which countryside and cities, and the food grown and eaten within them, are produced and sustained.
Leading scholars in the study of food offer ethnographic studies of peasant homesteads, family farms, community gardens, state food industries, transnational supermarkets, planning offices, tourist boards, and government ministries in locales across the globe. This fascinating collection provides vital new insight into the contested dynamics of food and will be key reading for upper-level students and scholars of food studies, anthropology, history and geography.
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About the Author
José Manuel Sobral is Senior Researcher and Director of the PhD Program in Social Anthropology at the Instituto de Ciências Sociais, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
Harry G. West is Professor of Anthropology, and Chair of the Food Studies Centre, at SOAS, University of London, UK.
Nuno Domingos is a Post-Doctoral Research Fellow at theInstituto de Ciências Sociais, Universidade de Lisboa,and a Research Associate of the Food Studies Centre, SOAS, University of London. He has an MA in Historical Sociology from theUniversidade Nova de Lisboa,andreceived his PhD in Social Anthropology from the SOAS University of London in 2009. His doctoral research on the history of football in colonial Mozambique explored Portuguese colonialism in Mozambique through the lens of urban popular culture promoted by sports practices and consumptions. The work was recently published in Portuguese under the titleFutebol e Colonialismo: Corpo e Cultura Popular em Moçambique(Imprensa de Ciências Sociais, Lisboa, 2012). He has published in Portugal on the history of the PortugueseEstado Novo(1933-1974) as well as on the History of Sport in Portugal. His English language publications on the history and anthropology of football in colonial Mozambique include 'Football and Colonialism, Domination and Appropriation: On the Mozambican case',Soccer and Society, vol. 4, October, 2007, pp. 478-494; and 'Urban Football Narratives and the Colonial Process in Lourenço Marques',The International Journal of the History of Sport, Vol. 28, No. 15, October 2011, pp. 2159-2175. His current research focuses on the social history of Portuguese wines and their contemporary contexts of production and consumption. He has undertaken field research in the Alentejo region of Portugal not only on wine but also (in collaboration with Harry G. West) on artisanal cheese, resulting in: West, H. G., and Domingos, N. 'Gourmandizing Poverty Food: The Serpa Cheese Slow Food Presidium,Journal of Agrarian Change, Vol. 12 No. 1, January 2012, pp. 120-143. Nuno Domingos is co-editor of the Portuguese social sciences book collectionHistória e Sociedade(Ed. 70). He is also co-convenor of the annual Food Studies Symposium organized jointly between the SOAS Food Studies Centre and theInstituto de Ciências Sociais.
José Manuel Sobral was Assistant Professor of History at the Universidade de Lisboa where he taught European Medieval History and Portuguese Contemporary History from 1977-1984, and is now Senior Research Fellow at the Instituto de Ciências Sociais, Universidade de Lisboa, where he is currently the Director of the PhD Program in Social Anthropology. He received his PhD in Social Anthropology from the Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa in Lisbon in 1993, with a doctoral thesis focusing on the historical and social configuration of a Portuguese rural parish. Although remaining interested in the study of the structures of rural society-mainly through the lens of landownership, family, marriage and inheritance, class, power and conflict-he moved on to research on nationalism, ethnicity and racism, working on several subjects in these fields, including theories of nationalism, Portuguese national identity in a comparative perspective, definitions of Portuguese ethnicity, the national identity of black immigrants from the former Portuguese colonies, and racism and discrimination towards Roma citizens and immigrants. His major published works include a book based on his doctoral thesis, Trajectos. O Presente e o Passado na Vida de uma Freguesia da Beira (Imprensa de Ciências Sociais, Lisboa, 1999); and an essay on Portuguese national identity entitled, Portugal, Portugueses: uma identidade nacional (Fundação Francisco Manuel dos Santos, Lisboa, 2012). More recently he has conducted research on the anthropology of food, linking this subject to his interests on the study of Portuguese social structures, nationalism and ethnicity. His publications in this area include: José Manuel Sobral, 'Nacionalismo, Culinária e Classe: a Cozinha Portuguesa da Obscuridade Á Consagração (séculos XIX-XX)', Ruris (Revista do Centro de Estudos Rurais, Universidade de Campinas, Brasil) Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 13-52, 2007; José Manuel Sobral, 'Cozinha, Nacionalismo e Cosmopolitismo em Portugal (séculos XIX-XX)', in Villaverde, M., Wall, K., Aboim, S. and Silva, F. (eds.), Itinerários: A Investigação nos 25 Anos do ICS (Imprensa de Ciências Sociais, Lisboa, 2008), pp. 99-123); and José Manuel Sobral and Mónica Truninger, 'Contested Food Authenticities: A review of consumers' perspectives', in Oliveira, B., Mafra, I., and Amaral, J.S. (eds.), Current Topics on Food Authentication (Research Signpost/Transworld Research Network, India, 2011), pp. 1-22). From December 2001 to September 2006 he was President of the APA (the Portuguese Anthropological Association). He is now a member of the Consultative Council of the WCAA (World Council of Anthropological Associations). Between 1990 and 2000 he was a member of the board of SNESup (a Portuguese union of researchers and university professors). He is a member of ASFS (Association for the Study of Food & Society), the AAA (American Anthropological Association), and EASA (the European Association of Social Anthropologists).
Harry G. West is Professor of Anthropology, and Chair of the Food Studies Centre, at SOAS, University of London. He worked for many years in rural Mozambique, focusing his research onthe ways in which colonialism and revolutionary socialism reconfigured institutions of local authority, and, more recently, how post-socialist reforms fostered a "revival of tradition". His major published works include:Kupilikula: Governance and the Invisible Realm in Mozambique(University of Chicago Press, 2005, first-runner-up for the US-based African Studies Association's Melville J. Herskovits Award in 2006, winner of the UK-based Royal Anthropological Institute's Amaury Talbot Prize for African Anthropology in 2007, and in Portuguese translation awardedSpecial Distinction in the Portuguese-based Instituto de Ciências Sociais, Universidade de Lisboa's A. Sedas Nunes Social Sciences Prize Competition in 2012);Ethnographic Sorcery(University of Chicago Press, 2007, first-runner-up for the US-based Society for Humanistic Anthropology's Victor Turner Prize in 2008);Transparency and Conspiracy: Ethnographies of Suspicion in the New World Order(Duke University Press, 2003, co-edited with Todd Sanders);Borders and Healers: Brokering Therapeutic Resources in Southeast Africa(Indiana University Press, 2005, co-edited with Tracy Luedke); andEnduring Socialism: Explorations of Revolution and Transformation, Restoration and Continuation(Berghahn Books, 2008, co-edited with Parvathi Raman). His recent research in the anthropology of food, funded by the British Academy, has focused on artisan cheese, discourses of 'terroir', and the global market niche in 'heritage foods.' He is particularly interested in how cheese makers have preserved and/or transformed cheesemaking techniques while navigating a changing marketplace, as well as how they have presented themselves, their locales of production, and their productive traditions to consumers new and old. Professor West directs the SOAS MA in the Anthropology of Food and was co-recipient of the 2009 Excellence in Instruction Award given by the US-based Agriculture, Food, and Human Values Society, and joint runner-up for the SOAS Director's Teaching Prize in 2011-2012. He is a member of the Advisory Board of the Oxford Symposium on Food & Cookery Trust and a Trustee of the Sophie Coe Memorial Fund, as well as a member of the summer school organizing committee of the European Institute of Food History and Culture (François-Rabelais University, Tours, France). He also serves on the editorial boards of:American Anthropologist;Food, Culture and Society; andThe Journal of Agrarian Change.
Table of ContentsList of Illustrations
Introduction: Approaching Food and Foodways Between the Country and the City Through the Work of Raymond Williams
Nuno Domingos and José Manuel Sobral, both Instituto de Ciências Sociais, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal, and Harry G. West, SOAS, University of London, UK
Section I: Of the Country and Its Food
Conflicting Wine Narratives: 'Pleasing Prospects' and the Struggles in the Construction of Alentejo
Nuno Domingos, Instituto de Ciências Sociais, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
Embodying Country-City Relations: the Chola Cuencana in Highland Ecuador
Emma-Jayne Abbots, University of Wales Trinity Saint David, UK
Bringing the City to the Country: Supermarket Expansion, Food Practices and Aesthetics in Rural South Africa
Elizabeth Hull, SOAS, University of London, UK
Bringing It All Back Home: Reconnecting the Country and the City through Heritage Food Tourism in the French Auvergne
Harry G. West, SOAS, University of London, UK
Section II: Of the City and Its Food
Coming to Terms with Urban Agriculture: a Self-Critique
Laura B. Delind, Michigan State University, USA
Urban Hunger and the Home Village: How Lilongwe's Migrant Poor Stay Food Secure
Johan Pottier, SOAS, University of London, UK
Perceptions of the Country through the Migration of City-grown Crops: Guinean Food in Bissau and in Lisbon
Maria Abranches, University of Sussex, UK
Section III: Of the Nation and Its Food
The Country, the Nation and the Region in Representations of Portuguese Food and Cuisine
José Manuel Sobral, Instituto de Ciências Sociais, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
Hazz al-Quhuf: An Urban Satire on Peasant Life and Food from Seventeenth-century Egypt
Sami Zubaida, Birkbeck and SOAS, University of London, UK
Reflecting Authenticity: 'Grandmother's Yogurt' between Bulgaria and Japan
Maria Yotova, University of Shiga Prefecture, Japan
Unpacking the Mediterranean Diet: Agriculture, Food, and Health
Monica Truninger and Dulce Freire, both Instituto de Ciências Sociais, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal