Food Regulation and Trade: Towards a Safe and Open Global Food System

Food Regulation and Trade: Towards a Safe and Open Global Food System

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Peterson Institute for International Economics

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Food Regulation and Trade: Towards a Safe and Open Global Food System

Guarding the safety of a nation's food supply, ensuring quality, and providing information to consumers so that they can make informed food purchase choices are widely accepted as universal obligations of governments. But differences in the way that governments fulfill these obligations can lead to trade conflicts. The potential for such conflicts increases as more affluent and safety-conscious consumers demand additional regulations in the national food systems. Governments should handle these conflicts in a way that both upholds food safety standards—and public confidence in them—and preserves the framework for trade and the benefits of an open food system.

This book examines the current state of regulation of the increasingly global food system, analyzes the underlying causes of the trade conflicts (both those that are currently evident and those that are waiting in the wings), and outlines the steps that could be taken to ensure that food safety and open trade become, at the least, compatible and, at best, mutually supporting.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780881323467
Publisher: Peterson Institute for International Economics
Publication date: 07/28/2003
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 275
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.50(d)
Age Range: 18 Years

Table of Contents

1Food Regulation in an Open Economy1
Globalization of the Food Supply3
Objectives and Organization of This Book7
2Trade-Related Regulations in the Global Food System13
Economic Rationales for Food Regulation14
Classification of Regulations16
Risk Analysis and Appropriate Degrees of Caution25
Trade Effects of Food Regulations26
Science and Economics in Risk-Reducing Regulations28
Capture of Regulations by Producers or Consumers31
Welfare-Enhancing Regulation of Food Trade32
3Global Food Regulatory Framework35
Multilateral Governance of Food Regulation35
The SPS Agreement40
The TBT Agreement51
The TRIPS Agreement56
Enforcement of the Multilateral Disciplines59
The Doha Development Agenda Negotiations75
4Control of Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases77
Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases and Their Control78
Trade Issues Related to Agricultural Pests and Diseases80
Animal and Plant Regulations in Practice82
Managing Agricultural Trade in the Presence of Risks98
5Food Safety and Control of Human Health Hazards101
Food Safety Regulation102
Trade Issues and Food Safety104
Controlling Natural Food-Borne Pathogens106
The Health Effects of Yield-Enhancing Inputs114
Managing Trade-Related Food Safety Issues125
6Regulating Quality Through Labeling and Standards127
Private and Public Provision of Information128
Food Quality Regulations in Practice131
Impacts of Labeling and Standards on Trade146
7Emerging Food Regulation Issues151
Scope for Trade Conflicts152
Labeling Process Attributes155
International Regulation of Process Attributes156
Recent Regulatory Developments: Genetically Modified Foods, Organics, and Animal Welfare160
The Challenges Ahead181
8Toward a Safe and Open Global Food Supply185
Assessment of the State of Food Regulation187
Role of the WTO in the Food Regulatory Framework193
Recommendations for Improving Regulation199
Seizing the Opportunities from Trade205
Table 1.1Trade patterns in agricultural, forestry, and fishery products4
Table 2.1Classification scheme for food regulations18
Table 3.1Number of complaints about regulations brought before the WTO's SPS Committee, 1995-200161
Table 3.2WTO disputes over regulation of agricultural product safety and quality, 1995-200264
Table 3.3Decisions in the four SPS cases heard by WTO panels and the Appellate Body70
Table 4.1Risk reduction under a systems approach to Mexican avocado imports84

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