Pulling together the most up-to-date research on the effects of restrictive language policies, this timely volume focuses on what we know about the actual outcomes for students and teachers in California, Arizona, and Massachusetts-states where these policies have been adopted. Prominent legal experts in bilingual education analyze these policies and specifically consider whether the new data undermine their legal viability. Other prominent contributors examine alternative policies and how these have fared. Finally, Patricia G�ndara, Daniel Losen, and Gary Orfield suggest how better policies, which rely on empirical research, might be constructed.
This timely volume:
Features contributions from well-known educators and scholars in bilingual education.
Includes an overview of English learners in the United States and a brief history of the policies that have guided their instruction.
Analyzes the current research on teaching English learners in order to determine the most effective instructional strategies.
Table of Contents
Series Foreword xi
A Note on Usage xxi
Part I English Learners and Restrictive Language Policies
1 The Changing Linguistic Landscape of the United States Patricia G�ndara Megan Hopkins 7
2 Forbidden Language: A Brief History of U.S. Language Policy Patricia G�ndara Daniel Losen Diane August Miren Uriarte M. Cecilia Gomez Megan Hopkins 20
Part II Evidence on Outcomes of Restrictive Language Policies
3 Proposition 227 in California: A Long-Term Appraisal of its Impact on English Learner Student Achievement Laura Wentwortk Nathan Pellegrin Karen Thompson Kenji Hakuta 37
4 Casta�eda's Third Prong: Evaluating the Achievement of Arizona's English Learners Under Restrictive Language Policy Kate Mahoney Jeff MacSwan Tom Haladyna David Garc�a 50
5 Impact of Restrictive Language Policies on Engagement and Academic Achievement of English Learners in Boston Public Schools Miren Vriarte Rosann Tung Nicole Lavan Virginia Diez 65
6 State Language Policies, School Language Practices, and the English Learner Achievement Gap Russell W. Rumberger Loan Tran 86
7 Shifting Landscapes of Professional Practices: English Learner Special Education Placement in English-Only States Alfredo J. Artiles Janette K. Klingner Amanda Sullivan Edward G. Fierros 102
8 Undermining Teacher Competencies: Another Look at the Impact of Restrictive Language Policies Ester J. de Jong M. Beatriz Arias María Teresa S�nchez 118
Part III Is There Evidence for Superior Alternatives to Restrictive Language Policies?
9 Restrictive State Language Policies: Are They Scientifically Based? Diane August Claude Goldenberg Robert Rueda 139
10Learning in Two Languages: Programs with Political Promise P. Zitlali Morales Ursula S. Aldana 159
11 Bilingualism for the Children: Dual-Language Programs Under Restrictive Language Policies April Linton Rebecca C. Franklin 175
Part IV Charting the Future of Language Policy in Education
12 Challenging Limitations: The Growing Potential for Overturning Restrictive Language Policies and Ensuring Equal Educational Opportunity Daniel Losen 195
13 Moving from Failure to a New Vision of Language Policy Patricia G�ndara Gary Orfield 216
About the Editors and the Contributors 227