In Foreign Intervention in Africa after the Cold War—interdisciplinary in approach and intended for nonspecialists—Elizabeth Schmidt provides a new framework for thinking about foreign political and military intervention in Africa, its purposes, and its consequences. She focuses on the quarter century following the Cold War (1991–2017), when neighboring states and subregional, regional, and global organizations and networks joined extracontinental powers in support of diverse forces in the war-making and peace-building processes. During this period, two rationales were used to justify intervention: a response to instability, with the corollary of responsibility to protect, and the war on terror.
Often overlooked in discussions of poverty and violence in Africa is the fact that many of the challenges facing the continent today are rooted in colonial political and economic practices, in Cold War alliances, and in attempts by outsiders to influence African political and economic systems during the decolonization and postindependence periods. Although conflicts in Africa emerged from local issues, external political and military interventions altered their dynamics and rendered them more lethal. Foreign Intervention in Africa after the Cold War counters oversimplification and distortions and offers a new continentwide perspective, illuminated by trenchant case studies.
About the Author
Elizabeth Schmidt is a professor of history at Loyola University Maryland. Her previous books include Foreign Intervention in Africa: From the Cold War to the War on Terror; Cold War and Decolonization in Guinea, 1946–1958; Mobilizing the Masses: Gender, Ethnicity, and Class in the Nationalist Movement in Guinea, 1939–1958; Peasants, Traders, and Wives: Shona Women in the History of Zimbabwe, 1870–1939; and Decoding Corporate Camouflage: U.S. Business Support for Apartheid.
Table of Contents
List of Illustrations ix
Foreword William Minter xi
Chapter 1 Outsiders and Africa: Political and Military Engagement on the Continent (1991-2017) 1
Chapter 2 The Post-Cold War Context: Shifting Paradigms and Misconceptions 23
Chapter 3 Identifying the Actors: Who Intervened and Why 46
Chapter 4 Somalia: Conflicting Missions and Mixed Results (1991-2017) 71
Chapter 5 Sudan and South Sudan: Conflicting Interests and Inadequate Solutions (1991-2017) 101
Chapter 6 Rwanda: Genocide and the Failure to Respond (1991-94) 135
Chapter 7 The Democratic Republic of Congo: Outside Interests and Africa's World War (1994-2017) 161
Chapter 8 Liberia and Sierra Leone: Regional War and License to Plunder (1990-2003) 187
Chapter 9 Côte d'Ivoire: Civil War and Regime Change (2002-11) 215
Chapter 10 The Arab Spring in North Africa: Popular Resistance, Backlash, and the Struggle for the Future (2011-17) 239
Chapter 11 Mali and Nigeria: Military Intervention and Unforeseen Consequences (2009-17) 293
Chapter 12 US Africa Policy after the Cold War (1991-2017) 331
Chapter 13 Epilogue: Trump and Africa (2017-) 368
Conclusion Assessing the Impact of Foreign Intervention 389
Suggested Readings follow chapters 2-1