This book provides current research on the fundamentals, clinical perspectives and challenges of forensic medicine. Chapter One reviews recent literature about the technologies that can be used to predict Externally Visible Characteristics through Forensic DNA Phenotyping (FDP). Chapter Two examines energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent spectrometry (EDX) for multi-element analysis. Chapter Three reviews the legal doctrine of informed consent in Italy. Chapter Four describes the Italian situation about the evaluation of dental damage, focusing attention on the renewals of treatment and the cases worthy of compensation. An original position about the quantification of permanent biological damage of the teeth used as prosthetic abutments is also presented.