Forest Management and the Water Cycle: An Ecosystem-Based Approach / Edition 1 available in Hardcover
- Pub. Date:
- Springer Netherlands
The protective function of forests for water quality and water-related hazards, as well as adequate water supplies for forest ecosystems in Europe, are potentially at risk due to changing climate and changing land-management practices. Water budgets of forest ecosystems are heavily dependent on climate and forest structure. The latter is determined by the management measures applied in the forestry sector. Various developments of forest management strategies, imposed on a background of changing climate, are considered in assessing the overall future of forest–water interactions in Europe.
Synthesizing recent research on the interactions of forest management and the water regime of forests in Europe and beyond, the book makes an important contribution to the ongoing dialogue between scientists dealing with different scales of forest-water interactions. This collaborative endeavour, which covers geographic and climatic gradients from Iceland to Israel and from southern Spain to Estonia and Finland, was made possible through the COST Action "Forest Management and the Water Cycle (FORMAN)", which was launched in 2007 (http://www.forestandwater.eu/).
The book will be of particular interest to the research community involved in forest ecosystem research and forest hydrology, as well as landscape ecologists and hydrologists in general. It will also provide reference material for forest practitioners and planners in hydrology and land use.
Table of Contents
Forest Management and the Water Cycle - Introduction to the Challenge Acknowledgement Section 1: Forest and water – tree to small catchment processes in a changing environment 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Hydrological effects on below ground processes in temperate and Mediterranean forests Introduction Biogenic causes of soil moisture heterogeneity Effects of soil water deficit Soil Mycorrhizal fungi Fine roots Physiological adaptation of roots Changes in root axial conductivity and hydraulic safety under drought Effects of excess soil water Soil Mycorrhizal fungi Fine roots Physiological adaptation of roots Conclusion and outlook References 1.2 Above ground processes - anticipating climate change influences Introduction Elevated [CO2] influences on leaf to tree level processes Drought, rising temperature, and extreme events influences on leaf to tree level processes Influences on hydraulic structure of trees Influences on tree growth and water use efficiency Species differences in water relations and canopy structure across Europe Canopy atmosphere interactions: forest influences on climate Conclusions References 1.3 Field studies of whole-tree leaf and root distribution and water relations in several European forests The importance of the integrated whole tree level approach Whole tree and stand level measurements Studies of water storage and the effectivity of water conducting systems Detail studies of water redistribution within trees Spatial application: tree to stand level studies Spatial application: landscape – level studies Temporal application: combining present data with history Conclusions Acknowledgement References 1.4 Forested water catchments in a changing environment Introduction: catchments as integrators An historical controversy Paired-catchment approach Water yield and low flows The affected area and the intensity of the treatment The vegetation type The soil and the rooting depth The amount of precipitation Snow and other seasonal effects The time factor Floods Water quality The importance of long-term catchment studies in a changing world References 1.5 Forest development in the European Alps and potential consequences on hydrological regime Introduction Development of forested areas and shrub encroachment in the Alps Development of soil stability in Alpine regions Effects of change in forested area on hydrology Influences of different site conditions and forest types General conclusions and management implications for the Alps Box 1: Terminology References 1.6 Effects of Climate Change on the vulnerability of Norway spruce stands – soil hydrological constraints for forest management in Austria’s lowlands Introduction Distribution and vulnerability of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.)) in lowlands Soil water regime in Norway spruce dominated forests The Fürstenfeld study Weather conditions in the year 2003 und 2004 Soil water content Sap flow The Kreisbach study Conclusions and implications for forest management References 1.7 Observed Climate Change in Croatia and its impact on the hydrology of lowlands Introduction Environmental system of lowland forests Climate Geology, soils and vegetation The observed changes of groundwater tables The reconstruction of the historic state of groundwater tables Assessment of morphology of hydromorphic soils Calculation of water logging status from groundwater data Prediction of the average water logging rate (WLR) from soil morphology The possibilities of water table management to mitigate water scarcity impact Forest canopy treatment Runoff retention in the landscape Management of forest defoliators Drought indices Conclusion References 1.8 The Case of Yatir Forest Introduction Aims of forest establishment Ecological background The species planted Research aims at Yatir Materials and methods Research sites and trees Instrumentation and Measurements Sap velocity measurements and hourly sap flux calculations Soil volumetric water content The meteorological tower Evapotranspiration Water-balance partitioning in the forest Daily, seasonal and annual evapotranspiration in relation to meteorological parameters, soil water availability and topography Measurements in 1992-3 Measurements during 2003 to 2006 Physiological activity under semi-arid climate Results from a provenance trial at Yatir Habitat effects on adaptive genetic variation in Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) provenances Site effects on physiological aspects Conclusions References 1.9 How Mediterranean deciduous trees cope with long summer drought? The case of Quercus pyrenaica forests in Western Spain Introduction Study Species Study Area Temporal Dynamic of Soil Moisture. Estimation of Stand Evapotranspiration Daily and Seasonal Evolution of Stomata Activity. Estimating Tree Transpiration Lessons Learned Quercus pyrenaica oak is only slightly water-limited during summer drought Quercus pyrenaica oaks depend on thick porous-weathered bedrocks Quercus pyrenaica is a well-performed deciduous oak to cope with increasing summer drought References Section 2: Forest structures, management and water fluxes 2.0 Introduction References 2.1 Changes in Forest Cover and its Diversity 1. Introduction 2. The climax forest cover in Europe 3. Zoogenic and anthropogenic effects on European forests 4. Forest cover transition References 2.2 Afforestation strategies with respect to forest-water interactions Introduction Effects of afforestation on water yields and quality Water yields Afforestation and changes in water yields in Bulgaria Water quality Energy wood plantations in central Europe and their hydrological constraints Water constraints on afforestation in the Mediterranean region Conclusions References 2.3 Tree Species’ Tolerance to Water Stress, Salinity and Fire Introduction Water stress Salinity Fire Conclusion 2.4 Overland flow, soil erosion and stream water quality in forest under different perturbations and climate conditions Introduction Mechanisms and processes of overland flow and soil erosion Runoff and overland flow processes Soil erosion processes Mediterranean, semiarid climate Runoff and soil erosion Runoff water quality Semi-humid northern climate Overland flow yield Overland flow quality Mild, humid climate Overland flow yield Overland flow quality Summary and conclusions 2.5 Forest Management Effects on Below-ground Hydrological Processes Intrinsic variability of soil hydrologic processes Above-ground biomass Soil surface interface Vadose zone and groundwater Effects of forest management on the quality of seepage waters Type of cutting and regeneration Harvest intensity Ditching Outlook References 2.6 Adjustment of forest management strategies to changing climate Introduction Major water-related forest management concerns under climate change uncertainties Adaptation of forest management strategies aimed at protecting forest hydrological functions Conclusions References Section 3: Scales and Approaches for Forest – Water Interactions 3.0 Introduction 3.1 Forest Management and the Water Cycle: An Integrated Introduction to Scaling Introduction Forest Ecohydrological Processes and Scaling Scales and Scaling in Fluvial Systems GIS based scaling, modelling and monitoring Conclusions References 3.2 Multidimensionality of Scales and Approaches for Forest - Water Interactions Introduction Stable Conditions: Water, Quantity, Quality and Management - Impact of Forest Management on Water Quantity and Quality Forests and Water Retention Capacity Five Most Important Indicators for Water Quality and Quantity Influenced by Different Forest Management Practices Best Management Practice Guidelines for Water Quality and Quantity in the frame of Close-to-Nature Forest Management Drought and Decay of Woodlands Exposure of European Forests to Drought Boreal forests Atlantic forests Continental forests Mediterranean forests Forest-Tree Response at Various Spatio-Temporal Scales Drought and Adaptive Forest Management Strategies Forest Measures for Flood Protection Landscape Forest conversion Afforestation Forest management River Course Limitation and Scales Water Quality Conclusions References 3.3 Fundamentals of Model Scaling in Forest Ecology Introduction Application of Scaling in Forest Ecohydrology Functional-Structural Plant Models and Systems Biology Model-Based Reasoning: The connecting link between observation and quantification Scale Identification and Scaling Conclusion References 3.4 Up- and Downscaling Model Approaches for Water Relations in Forest Management from Plot to Landscape Level Introduction Scaling options Upscaling Downscaling Mean values of fluctuating processes Examples Groundwater Road runoff Catchment yield modeling Drought index Conclusions References 3.5 A Small Catchment Scale Approach for Modeling Effects of Forest Management on Water Cycle in Boreal Landscape Introduction Catchment Disaggregation in Hydrological Models HRU for the Peatland Forest Water Cycle and Forest Management in Boreal Peatlands HRU for the Upland Forest Water Cycle and Forest Management in Boreal Upland Areas Remarks References 3.6 Large Scale Approach to Forest and Water Interactions Introduction Dealing with Ecohydrological Processes on Larger Scales Precipitation, Soil Water and Discharge at Different Scales in Dependency upon Forestry and Land Cover Dynamics Approach of Hydrological Processes in Dependency of Forests and Forest Site Properties on Larger Scales Hydrological System Behaviour at Catchment Scale Contribution of Remote Sensing Techniques to Assess Water and Forests Interactions at the Meso- and Macroscale Hydrochemical Interactions of Forest and Water and its Impacts on Larger Scales Integrated Land and Water Management at Larger Scale The Effects of an Integrated Forest and Watershed Management at Larger Scales - Myths and Realities Land-Use and Water Management Governance: the European Water Framework Directive and the European Floods Directive Conclusions 3.7 Model-Based Assessment of Forest Land Management on Water Dynamics at Various Hydrological Scales - A Case Study Introduction Soil properties Upscaling Integrated Modeling Conclusions and Outlook References 3.8 Typological Up-Scaling of Wooded Peatlands Introduction Features of Aerial Photo Mapping of the Peatlands Features of Peatland Mapping Aerial Photo Mapping of Peatlands Analyses of Wooded Peatlands Ortophoto and Ground Level Parameterisation of Wooded Peatlands GIS Based Analysis of Wooded Peatland Ecotopes Results Ortophoto and Ground Level Parameterisation of Wooded Peatlands GIS Based Analysis of the Wooded Mire Ecotopes Conclusions References 3.9 Difficulties of Scaling in Forest and Water Management in Urban Areas: Social and Institutional Dimension Introduction Urban Growth and Industrialization Transboundary Waters Institutional and Organizational Framework Jurisdictional Boundaries Discussion Conclusion References Synthesis and Outlook Introduction Forest management and science Forest services and costs Holism and reductionism in forest management and the water cycle Conclusion References