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SAGE Publications
Formative Assessment: Making It Happen in the Classroom / Edition 1

Formative Assessment: Making It Happen in the Classroom / Edition 1

by Margaret Heritage


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Formative Assessment: Making It Happen in the Classroom / Edition 1

A practical, in-depth guide to implementing formative assessment in your classroom!

Formative assessment allows teachers to identify and close gaps in student understanding and move learning forward. This research-based book walks readers through every step of the process and offers illustrative examples across a range of subject areas and grade levels. This book explains how to:

  • Clearly articulate learning progressions, learning goals, and success criteria
  • Select strategies for assessment and provide quality feedback
  • Engage students in self-assessment and self-management
  • Create a classroom environment that values feedback as part of the learning process

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781412975049
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Publication date: 06/14/2010
Pages: 160
Sales rank: 207,782
Product dimensions: 6.90(w) x 9.90(h) x 0.50(d)

About the Author

Margaret Heritage is an independent consultant in education. For her entire career, her work has spanned both research and practice. In addition to spending many years in her native England as a practitioner, a university teacher, and an inspector of schools, she had an extensive period at UCLA, first as principal of the laboratory school of the Graduate School of Education and Information Students and then as an Assistant Director at the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards and Student Testing (CRESST) UCLA. She has also taught courses in the Departments of Education at UCLA and Stanford.

Table of Contents

Foreword James W. Stigler ix

Acknowledgments xi

About the Author xiii

About the Contributor xv

1 Introduction 1

Bridging Theory, Research, and Practice 1

Overview of the Chapters 2

Changes in Practice 4

2 Assessment With and for Students 7

The Process of Formative Assessment 10

Determine Learning Goals and Define Criteria for Success 10

Elicit Evidence of Learning 11

Interpreting the Evidence 12

Identifying the Gap 12

Feedback 13

Adapting and Responding to Learning Needs 14

Scaffolding New Learning 14

Close the Gap 14

Classroom Culture 15

Theory Into Practice 15

Formative and Summative Assessment 18

Summing Up 19

Reflection Questions 20

3 It All Depends on What the Data Tell You 21

The Big Assessment Picture 22

Appropriateness for Purpose 23

Making Sense of the Data 24

Different Assessments for Different Purposes 26

Different Grain Sizes 26

Taking Action 28

Where Does Formative Assessment Fit In? 28

Putting It All Together 30

Summing Up 36

Reflection Questions 36

4 The Drivers of Formative Assessment: Learning Goals and Success Criteria 37

Learning Progressions 38

Developing a Learning Progression for Reading 40

Developing a Learning Progression for Mathematics 42

Learning Goals and Success Criteria 44

Identifying Learning Goals and Success Criteria 45

Revising Learning Goals and Success Criteria 51

Communicating Learning Goals and Success Criteria to Students 53

Summing Up 55

Reflection Questions 55

5 Formative Feedback for Teaching 57

Generating the Evidence 57

Quality Feedback for Teaching 58

Revisiting the Teachers 59

Curriculum-Embedded Assessment 70

Technology Tools 71

Helper Practices for Formative Assessment 71

Planning Instruction and Assessment 72

Who Is Assessed and When? 73

Interpreting Evidence 74

The "Just Right Gap" 74

Differentiating Instruction 75

Building a Repertoire 76

Summing Up 78

Reflection Questions 78

6 Formative Feedback for Learning 79

Teacher Feedback 80

Types of Teacher Feedback 81

Timing of Feedback 83

Feedback as Instructional Scaffolding 84

Feedback and Self-Regulation 84

Examples of Teacher Feedback 84

Using the Feedback 90

What About Grades? 90

Student Feedback 91

Peer Feedback 91

Feedback From Self-Assessment 93

Summing Up 97

Reflection Questions 97

7 Implementing Formative Assessment: What Do Teachers Need to Know and Be Able to Do? 99

Creating the Classroom Culture 99

Classroom Management 101

Teacher Knowledge 101

Content Knowledge 103

Knowledge About Metacognition 105

Pedagogical Content Knowledge 105

Students' Previous Learning 107

Assessment Knowledge 108

Teacher Skills 110

Interpreting Evidence 111

Providing Feedback 112

Matching Instruction to the Gap 113

Teaching Peer Assessment 114

Teacher Attitudes 115

Summing Up 116

Reflection Questions 116

8 Developing and Deepening Formative Assessment Practice E. Caroline Wylie Margaret Heritage 117

A Daunting Prospect? 117

A Professional Culture for Change 118

Professional Development to Support Teachers' Use of Formative Assessment 119

Planning for PLCs 120

The Content of the PLCs 123

The Role of School Administrators 127

Summing Up 131

Reflection Questions for Teachers 131

Reflection Questions for Administrators 131

References 133

Index 139

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