Foundations of Earth Science

Foundations of Earth Science

by Frederick K. Lutgens

Paperback(Older Edition)

$57.33

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Overview

Foundations of Earth Science by Frederick K. Lutgens

The brief, paperback version of the best-selling Foundations of Earth Science  5/e is designed for introductory courses in earth science. This highly visual, non- technical survey emphasizes broad, up-to-date coverage of basic topics and principles in geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy. The book's flexible design lends itself to the diversity of Earth science courses in both content and approach. As in previous editions, the main focus is to foster student understanding of basic earth science principles.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780023728211
Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
Publication date: 12/28/1995
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 482
Product dimensions: 7.99(w) x 10.00(h) x 0.73(d)

About the Author

About the Authors
Fred Lutgens and Ed Tarbuck have been good friends and colleagues since 1970. Between them, they have more than 57 years of experience teaching geology to undergraduates, and both have been recognized with awards as excellent and inspiring professors. They share a special interest in introducing geology to beginning students and a belief in the value of field experiences for students of all levels.
Lutgens and Tarbuck published their first college text, Earth Science, in 1976. That book, winner of the McGuffy Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association, is now going into its tenth edition. In 1983, as the first edition of Earth was being prepared, gifted geology illustrator Dennis Tasa joined the author team. Since then the three have collaborated on more than twenty projects. Not only do Tarbuck, Lutgens, and Tasa work well together creatively; they also enjoy spending time in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains near Tasa’s New Mexico studio.
Tarbuck enjoys downhill skiing in Colorado, fly fishing near his childhood home in Northern Minnesota, and spending time in the Cascades. Lutgens is an avid runner, and when he can make the time, truly enjoys hiking the canyons of the Colorado Plateau. Although Lutgens and Tarbuck think alike on many issues, they don’t agree on everything. Lutgens is devoted to jazz and classical music, whereas Tarbuck prefers pop artists or a good country station.

Read an Excerpt

Earth is a very small part of a vast universe, but it is our home. It provides the resources that support our modern society and the ingredients necessary to maintain life. Therefore, a knowledge and understanding of our planet is critical to our social well-being and, indeed, vital to our survival.

In recent years, media reports have made us increasingly aware of our place in the universe and the forces at work in our physical environment. We are also learning that human interactions with natural systems can upset delicate balances. News stories inform us of new discoveries in the solar system and beyond. Daily reports remind us of the destruction caused by hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, and landslides. We have been made aware of ozone depletion, global warming, and growing environmental concerns about the oceans. To comprehend, prepare for, and solve these and other concerns requires an awareness of how science is done and the scientific principles that influence our planet, its rocks, mountains, atmosphere, and oceans.

The Third Edition of Foundations of Earth Science, like its predecessors, is a college-level text designed for an introductory course in Earth science. It consists of seven units that emphasize broad and up-to-date coverage of basic topics and principles in geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy. The book is intended to be a meaningful, nontechnical survey for undergraduate students with little background in science. Usually these students are taking an Earth science class to meet a portion of their college's or university's general requirements. As such, in addition to being informative and up to date, Foundationsof Earth Science is a user-friendly text, a book that is a highly usable "tool" for learning basic Earth science principles and concepts.

Distinguishing Features

Readability. The language of this book is straightforward and written to be understood. Clear, readable discussions with a minimum of technical language are the rule. When new terms are introduced, they are placed in boldface and defined. The frequent headings and subheadings also help students follow discussions and identify the important ideas presented in each chapter. In the present edition, improved readability was achieved by examining chapter organization and flow and writing in a more personal style. Many sections were substantially rewritten in an effort to make the material more understandable.

Illustrations and Photographs. The Earth sciences are highly visual. Therefore, photographs and artwork are a very important part of an introductory book. Foundations of Earth Science, Third Edition, contains dozens of new high-quality photographs that were carefully selected to aid understanding, add realism, and heighten the reader's interest.

The illustrations in each new edition of Foundations of Earth Science keep getting better and better. In the third edition more than 50 pieces of line art are new or revised. The new art illustrates ideas and concepts more clearly and realistically than ever before. Dennis Tasa, a gifted artist and respected Earth science illustrator, carried out the art program.

Focus on Learning. To assist student learning, every chapter opens with a series of questions. Each question alerts the reader to an important idea or concept in the chapter. Upon completion of a chapter, four useful devices help students review. First, a helpful summary—The Chapter in Review—recaps all of the major points. Next is a checklist of Key Terms with page references. Learning the language of Earth science helps students retain the material. This is followed by Questions for Review, which enables students to examine their knowledge of significant facts and ideas. A 20-item chapter test—Testing What You Have Learned—concludes the chapter-end review.

Maintaining a Focus on Basic Principles and Instructor Flexibility. The main focus of the Third Edition remains the same as in the first two—to foster student understanding of basic Earth science principles. With this in mind, we have attempted to provide the reader with a sense of the observational techniques and reasoning processes that characterize the Earth sciences.

Whereas student use of the text is a primary concern, the book's adaptability to the needs and desires of the instructor is equally important. Realizing the broad diversity of Earth science courses in both content and approach, we have continued to use a relatively nonintegrated format to allow maximum flexibility for the instructor. Each of the major units stands alone; hence, they can he taught in any order. A unit can be omitted entirely without appreciable loss of continuity, and portions of some chapters may be interchanged or excluded at the instructor's discretion.

More About the Third Edition

The Third Edition of Foundations of Earth Science represents a thorough revision. Every part of the book was examined carefully with the dual goals of keeping topics current and improving the clarity of text discussions. Based on feedback from reviewers and students, we believe we have succeeded.

Of special interest are the following changes.

  • New introduction to external processes (Chapter 3).
  • New section on floods and flood control (Chapter 3).
  • Updated discussion of the driving mechanism for plate tectonics (Chapter 5).
  • Expanded coverage of continental margins (Chapter 9) and ocean circulation (Chapter 10).
  • Updated sections on ozone depletion, global warming, and temperature controls (Chapter 11).
  • A complete revision and reorganization of Chapter 12, with new discussions of water vapor, processes that lift air, and the influence of stability on the weather.
  • New discussion on understanding air pressure (Chapter 13).
  • Expanded and updated coverage of severe weather (Chapter 14).
  • Revised, simplified, and updated treatment of the planets (Chapter 15).

The Teaching and Learning Package

The authors and publisher have been pleased to work with a number of talented people who produced an excellent supplements package. This package includes the traditional supplements that students and professors have come to expect from authors and publishers, as well as some new kinds of supplements that involve electronic media.

For the Student

GEODe II CD-ROM (New).
Each copy of Foundations of Earth Science, Third Edition, comes with the popular GEODe II CD by Dennis Tasa of Tasa Graphic Arts, Inc., Edward J. Tarbuck, and Frederick K. Lutgens. GEODe II is a dynamic program that reinforces key concepts by using animations, tutorials, and interactive exercises. A special GEODe II icon appears throughout the book wherever a text discussion has a corresponding GEODe II activity. This special offering gives students two valuable products (GEODe II and the textbook) for the price of one.

Companion Web Site
A completely new web site, specific to the text, contains numerous review exercises (from which students get immediate feedback), exercises to expand one's understanding of Earth science, and resources for further exploration. This web site provides an excellent platform from which to start using the Internet for the study of Earth science. Please visit the site at http://www.prenhall.com/lutgens.

Study Guide
Written by experienced educator Kenneth Pinzke of Southwestern Illinois College, the study guide helps students identify the important points from the text and provides them with review exercises, study questions, self-check exercises, and vocabulary review.

For the Professor

Instructor's Manual
Written by Kenneth Pinzke of Southwestern Illinois College, the Instructor's Manual is intended as a resource for both new and experienced instructors. It includes a variety of lecture outlines, additional source materials, teaching tips, advice about how to integrate visual supplements (including the web-based resources), and various other ideas for the classroom.

Transparency Set
Full-color acetates of ALL figures and tables from the text are available free of charge to qualified adopters.

Slide Set
Full-color slides of selected photographs, line art, and tables from the text, are available free of charge to qualified adopters.

PH Custom Test
Available for both Macintosh and Windows, and based on the powerful testing technology developed by Engineering Software Associates, Inc. (ESA), Prentice Hall Custom Test allows instructors to create and tailor exams to their own needs. With LAN-based testing capabilities, exams can also be administered online, and data can then be automatically transferred for evaluation. A comprehensive desk reference guide is included along with online assistance.

Digital Files
All the maps and figures from the text, and many of the photographs, are available digitally on a CD-ROM. These files are ideal for those instructors who use PowerPoint or a comparable presentation software for their classes, or for professors who create text-specific Web sites for their students.

The New York Times Themes of the Times—Changing Earth
This unique newspaper-format supplement features recent articles about Earth science from the pages of The New York Times. This supplement, available at no extra charge from your local Prentice Hall representative, encourages students to make connections between the classroom and the world around them.

For the Laboratory

Applications and Investigations in Earth Science
Written by Ed Tarbuck, Fred Lutgens, and Ken Pinzke, this full-color laboratory manual contains 22 exercises that provide students with hands-on experiences in geology, oceanography, meteorology, astronomy, and Earth science skills.

Acknowledgments

Writing a college textbook requires the talents and cooperation of many people. Working with Dennis Tasa, who is responsible for all of the outstanding illustrations, is always special for us. We not only value his outstanding artistic talents and imagination but his friendship as well.

We are also grateful to Professor Ken Pinzke of Southwestern Illinois College. In addition to his many helpful suggestions regarding the manuscript, Ken prepared the chapter-opening questions and the chapter-end summaries and tests that help make the book a usable tool for beginning students. He is also responsible for the text's all new Web site as well the Student Study Guide and Laboratory Manual that accompany the text.

Special thanks goes to those colleagues who prepared in-depth reviews of the manuscript. Their critical comments and thoughtful input helped guide our work and clearly strengthened the text.

We also want to acknowledge the team of professionals at Prentice Hall. Thanks to Paul Corey, President of Prentice Hall's Engineering, Science, and Math division. We sincerely appreciate his continuing strong support for excellence and innovation. Thanks also goes to our editor, Patrick Lynch. His strong communication skills and easygoing style contributed greatly to the project. The production team, led by Ed Thomas, has done an outstanding job. They are true professionals, with whom we are very fortunate to be associated.

Frederick K. Lutgens
Edward J. Tarbuck

Table of Contents

Introduction What Is Earth Science?
UNIT I EARTH MATERIALS
Chapter 1 Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks
Chapter 2 Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth
UNIT II Sculpturing Earth's Surface
Chapter 3 Landscapes Fashioned by Water
Chapter 4 Glacial and Arid Landscapes
UNIT III FORCES WITHIN
Chapter 5 Plate Tectonics: A Scientific Theory Unfolds
Chapter 6 Restless Earth: Earthquakes, Geologic structures, and Mountain Building
Chapter 7 Fires Within: Igneous Activity
UNIT IV DECIPHERING EARTH'S HISTORY
Chapter 8 Geologic Time
UNIT V THE GLOBAL OCEAN
Chapter 9 Oceans: The Last Frontier
Chapter 10 The Restless Ocean
UNIT VI THE ATMOSPHERE
Chapter 11 Heating the Atmosphere
Chapter 12 Moisture, Clouds, and Precipitation
Chapter 13 The Atmosphere in Motion
Chapter 14 Weather Patterns and Severe Weather
UNIT VII EARTH'S PLACE IN THE UNIVERSE
Chapter 15 The Nature of the Solar System
Chapter 16 Beyond the Solar Syster
Appendix A Metric and English Units Compared
Appendix B Mineral Identification Key
Appendix C Relative Humidity and Dew-Point Tables
Appendix D Earth's Grid System
Appendix E Topographic Maps

Preface

Earth is a very small part of a vast universe, but it is our home. It provides the resources that support our modern society and the ingredients necessary to maintain life. Therefore, a knowledge and understanding of our planet is critical to our social well-being and, indeed, vital to our survival.

In recent years, media reports have made us increasingly aware of our place in the universe and the forces at work in our physical environment. We are also learning that human interactions with natural systems can upset delicate balances. News stories inform us of new discoveries in the solar system and beyond. Daily reports remind us of the destruction caused by hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, and landslides. We have been made aware of ozone depletion, global warming, and growing environmental concerns about the oceans. To comprehend, prepare for, and solve these and other concerns requires an awareness of how science is done and the scientific principles that influence our planet, its rocks, mountains, atmosphere, and oceans.

The Third Edition of Foundations of Earth Science, like its predecessors, is a college-level text designed for an introductory course in Earth science. It consists of seven units that emphasize broad and up-to-date coverage of basic topics and principles in geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy. The book is intended to be a meaningful, nontechnical survey for undergraduate students with little background in science. Usually these students are taking an Earth science class to meet a portion of their college's or university's general requirements. As such, in addition to being informative and up to date,Foundations of Earth Science is a user-friendly text, a book that is a highly usable "tool" for learning basic Earth science principles and concepts.

Distinguishing Features

Readability. The language of this book is straightforward and written to be understood. Clear, readable discussions with a minimum of technical language are the rule. When new terms are introduced, they are placed in boldface and defined. The frequent headings and subheadings also help students follow discussions and identify the important ideas presented in each chapter. In the present edition, improved readability was achieved by examining chapter organization and flow and writing in a more personal style. Many sections were substantially rewritten in an effort to make the material more understandable.

Illustrations and Photographs. The Earth sciences are highly visual. Therefore, photographs and artwork are a very important part of an introductory book. Foundations of Earth Science, Third Edition, contains dozens of new high-quality photographs that were carefully selected to aid understanding, add realism, and heighten the reader's interest.

The illustrations in each new edition of Foundations of Earth Science keep getting better and better. In the third edition more than 50 pieces of line art are new or revised. The new art illustrates ideas and concepts more clearly and realistically than ever before. Dennis Tasa, a gifted artist and respected Earth science illustrator, carried out the art program.

Focus on Learning. To assist student learning, every chapter opens with a series of questions. Each question alerts the reader to an important idea or concept in the chapter. Upon completion of a chapter, four useful devices help students review. First, a helpful summary—The Chapter in Review—recaps all of the major points. Next is a checklist of Key Terms with page references. Learning the language of Earth science helps students retain the material. This is followed by Questions for Review, which enables students to examine their knowledge of significant facts and ideas. A 20-item chapter test—Testing What You Have Learned—concludes the chapter-end review.

Maintaining a Focus on Basic Principles and Instructor Flexibility. The main focus of the Third Edition remains the same as in the first two—to foster student understanding of basic Earth science principles. With this in mind, we have attempted to provide the reader with a sense of the observational techniques and reasoning processes that characterize the Earth sciences.

Whereas student use of the text is a primary concern, the book's adaptability to the needs and desires of the instructor is equally important. Realizing the broad diversity of Earth science courses in both content and approach, we have continued to use a relatively nonintegrated format to allow maximum flexibility for the instructor. Each of the major units stands alone; hence, they can he taught in any order. A unit can be omitted entirely without appreciable loss of continuity, and portions of some chapters may be interchanged or excluded at the instructor's discretion.

More About the Third Edition

The Third Edition of Foundations of Earth Science represents a thorough revision. Every part of the book was examined carefully with the dual goals of keeping topics current and improving the clarity of text discussions. Based on feedback from reviewers and students, we believe we have succeeded.

Of special interest are the following changes.

  • New introduction to external processes (Chapter 3).
  • New section on floods and flood control (Chapter 3).
  • Updated discussion of the driving mechanism for plate tectonics (Chapter 5).
  • Expanded coverage of continental margins (Chapter 9) and ocean circulation (Chapter 10).
  • Updated sections on ozone depletion, global warming, and temperature controls (Chapter 11).
  • A complete revision and reorganization of Chapter 12, with new discussions of water vapor, processes that lift air, and the influence of stability on the weather.
  • New discussion on understanding air pressure (Chapter 13).
  • Expanded and updated coverage of severe weather (Chapter 14).
  • Revised, simplified, and updated treatment of the planets (Chapter 15).

The Teaching and Learning Package

The authors and publisher have been pleased to work with a number of talented people who produced an excellent supplements package. This package includes the traditional supplements that students and professors have come to expect from authors and publishers, as well as some new kinds of supplements that involve electronic media.

For the Student

GEODe II CD-ROM (New).
Each copy of Foundations of Earth Science, Third Edition, comes with the popular GEODe II CD by Dennis Tasa of Tasa Graphic Arts, Inc., Edward J. Tarbuck, and Frederick K. Lutgens. GEODe II is a dynamic program that reinforces key concepts by using animations, tutorials, and interactive exercises. A special GEODe II icon appears throughout the book wherever a text discussion has a corresponding GEODe II activity. This special offering gives students two valuable products (GEODe II and the textbook) for the price of one.

Companion Web Site
A completely new web site, specific to the text, contains numerous review exercises (from which students get immediate feedback), exercises to expand one's understanding of Earth science, and resources for further exploration. This web site provides an excellent platform from which to start using the Internet for the study of Earth science. Please visit the site at http://www.prenhall.com/lutgens.

Study Guide
Written by experienced educator Kenneth Pinzke of Southwestern Illinois College, the study guide helps students identify the important points from the text and provides them with review exercises, study questions, self-check exercises, and vocabulary review.

For the Professor

Instructor's Manual
Written by Kenneth Pinzke of Southwestern Illinois College, the Instructor's Manual is intended as a resource for both new and experienced instructors. It includes a variety of lecture outlines, additional source materials, teaching tips, advice about how to integrate visual supplements (including the web-based resources), and various other ideas for the classroom.

Transparency Set
Full-color acetates of ALL figures and tables from the text are available free of charge to qualified adopters.

Slide Set
Full-color slides of selected photographs, line art, and tables from the text, are available free of charge to qualified adopters.

PH Custom Test
Available for both Macintosh and Windows, and based on the powerful testing technology developed by Engineering Software Associates, Inc. (ESA), Prentice Hall Custom Test allows instructors to create and tailor exams to their own needs. With LAN-based testing capabilities, exams can also be administered online, and data can then be automatically transferred for evaluation. A comprehensive desk reference guide is included along with online assistance.

Digital Files
All the maps and figures from the text, and many of the photographs, are available digitally on a CD-ROM. These files are ideal for those instructors who use PowerPoint or a comparable presentation software for their classes, or for professors who create text-specific Web sites for their students.

The New York Times Themes of the Times—Changing Earth
This unique newspaper-format supplement features recent articles about Earth science from the pages of The New York Times. This supplement, available at no extra charge from your local Prentice Hall representative, encourages students to make connections between the classroom and the world around them.

For the Laboratory

Applications and Investigations in Earth Science
Written by Ed Tarbuck, Fred Lutgens, and Ken Pinzke, this full-color laboratory manual contains 22 exercises that provide students with hands-on experiences in geology, oceanography, meteorology, astronomy, and Earth science skills.

Acknowledgments

Writing a college textbook requires the talents and cooperation of many people. Working with Dennis Tasa, who is responsible for all of the outstanding illustrations, is always special for us. We not only value his outstanding artistic talents and imagination but his friendship as well.

We are also grateful to Professor Ken Pinzke of Southwestern Illinois College. In addition to his many helpful suggestions regarding the manuscript, Ken prepared the chapter-opening questions and the chapter-end summaries and tests that help make the book a usable tool for beginning students. He is also responsible for the text's all new Web site as well the Student Study Guide and Laboratory Manual that accompany the text.

Special thanks goes to those colleagues who prepared in-depth reviews of the manuscript. Their critical comments and thoughtful input helped guide our work and clearly strengthened the text.

We also want to acknowledge the team of professionals at Prentice Hall. Thanks to Paul Corey, President of Prentice Hall's Engineering, Science, and Math division. We sincerely appreciate his continuing strong support for excellence and innovation. Thanks also goes to our editor, Patrick Lynch. His strong communication skills and easygoing style contributed greatly to the project. The production team, led by Ed Thomas, has done an outstanding job. They are true professionals, with whom we are very fortunate to be associated.

Frederick K. Lutgens
Edward J. Tarbuck

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