ISBN-10:
0471194042
ISBN-13:
9780471194040
Pub. Date:
05/08/2007
Publisher:
Wiley
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry / Edition 2

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry / Edition 2

by Peter R. Griffiths, James A. De Haseth

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780471194040
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 05/08/2007
Series: Chemical Analysis: A Series of Monographs on Analytical Chemistry and Its Applications Series , #171
Edition description: REV
Pages: 560
Product dimensions: 6.46(w) x 9.17(h) x 1.43(d)

About the Author

Peter R. Griffiths, PhD, is a Professor of Chemistry at theUniversity of Idaho. He has published over 250 papers on variousaspects of vibrational spectroscopy; most of his research isoriented towards solving problems by infrared and Ramanspectroscopy. He has also edited eight books on this subject. Heteaches several courses on aspects of infrared spectroscopy withDr. de Haseth, and is the director of the workshops that are heldevery summer at Bowdoin College. He has won numerous awardsincluding the SSP Award and the Bomem-Michelson Award.

James A. de Haseth, PhD, is a Professor of Chemistry atthe University of Georgia. He has worked with FT-IR spectrometersfor over thirty years and has published and lectured extensively ontheir operation and performance.

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Table of Contents

PREFACE.

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY.

1.1. Introduction.

1.2. Molecular Vibrations.

1.3. Vibration–Rotation Spectroscopy.

1.4. Widths of Bands and Lines in Infrared Spectra.

1.5. Quantitative Considerations.

1.6. Polarized Radiation.

1.7. Raman Spectrometry.

1.8. Summary.

CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND.

2.1. Michelson Interferometer.

2.2. Generation of an Interferogram.

2.3. Effect of Finite Resolution.

2.4. Apodization.

2.5. Phase Effects.

2.6. Effect of Beam Divergence.

2.7. Effect of Mirror Misalignment.

2.8. Effect of a Poor Mirror Drive.

2.9. Rapid-Scan Interferometers.

2.10. Step-Scan Interferometers.

CHAPTER 3 SAMPLING THE INTERFEROGRAM.

3.1. Sampling Frequency.

3.2. Aliasing.

3.3. Dynamic Range.

3.4. Analog-to-Digital Converters.

CHAPTER 4 FOURIER TRANSFORMS.

4.1. Classical Fourier Transform.

4.2. Fast Fourier Transform.

4.3. Phase Correction.

4.4. Fourier Transform: Pictorial Essay.

4.5. Data Systems.

CHAPTER 5 TWO-BEAM INTERFEROMETERS.

5.1. Michelson-Type Interferometers.

5.2. Tilt-Compensated Interferometers.

5.3. Refractively Scanned Interferometers.

5.4. Polarization Interferometers.

5.5. Step-Scan Interferometers.

5.6. Stationary Interferometers.

5.7. Beamsplitters.

5.8. Lamellar Grating Interferometers.

Appendix: Manufacturers of FT-IR Spectrometers.

CHAPTER 6 OTHER COMPONENTS OF FT-IR SPECTROMETERS.

6.1. Infrared Radiation Sources for Transmission and ReflectionSpectrometry.

6.2. Detectors.

6.3. Optics.

6.4. Spectrometer Design.

CHAPTER 7 SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO.

7.1. Detector Noise.

7.2. Trading Rules in FT-IR Spectrometry.

7.3. Digitization Noise.

7.4. Other Sources of Noise.

7.5. Interferometers Versus Grating Spectrometers.

CHAPTER 8 PHOTOMETRIC ACCURACY IN FT-IR SPECTROMETRY.

8.1. Introduction.

8.2. Effect of Spectral Resolution.

8.3. Effect of Apodization.

8.4. 100% Lines.

8.5. Zero Energy Level.

8.6. Linearity Between 100% and 0%T.

CHAPTER 9 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS.

9.1. Introduction.

9.2. Beer’s Law.

9.3. Spectral Subtraction.

9.4. Linear Least-Squares Fitting Methods.

9.5. Classical Least Squares.

9.6. Inverse Least-Squares Regression.

9.7. Principal Component Analysis.

9.8. Principal Component Regression.

9.9. Partial Least-Squares Regression.

9.10. Validation.

9.11. Multivariate Curve Resolution.

9.12. General Guidelines for Calibration Data Sets.

9.13. Neural Networks.

CHAPTER 10 DATA PROCESSING.

10.1. Baseline Correction.

10.2. Interpolation.

10.3. Peak Picking.

10.4. Spectral Smoothing.

10.5. Band Fitting.

10.6. Derivatives of Spectra.

10.7. Fourier Self-Deconvolution.

10.8. Spectral Searching.

CHAPTER 11 CONVENTIONAL TRANSMISSION SPECTROMETRY.

11.1. Condensed-Phase Samples.

11.1.4 Trace Analysis.

11.2. Gas- and Vapor-Phase Samples.

CHAPTER 12 POLARIZATION.

12.1. Plane-Polarized Radiation.

12.2. Circular Polarization.

12.3. Polarization Modulation.

12.4. Applications of Linear Dichroism.

12.5. Vibrational Circular Dichroism.

CHAPTER 13 SPECULAR REFLECTION.

13.1. Introduction.

13.2. Fresnel Reflection from Bulk Samples.

13.3. Infrared Reflection–Absorption Spectrometry withMetal Substrates.

13.4. IRRAS with Dielectric Substrates.

13.5. Transflection.

13.6. Summary.

CHAPTER 14 MICROSPECTROSCOPY AND IMAGING.

14.1. Microsampling with Beam Condensers.

14.2. Microscopes.

14.3. Diamond Anvil Cells.

14.4. Reflection Microscopy.

14.5. Hyperspectral FT-IR Imaging.

CHAPTER 15 ATTENUATED TOTAL REFLECTION.

15.1. Introduction.

15.2. Theory.

15.3. Practical Considerations.

15.4. Accessories for Multiple Internal Reflection.

15.5. Single-Reflection Accessories.

15.6. Infrared Fibers.

15.7. Summary.

CHAPTER 16 DIFFUSE REFLECTION.

16.1. Theory of Diffuse Reflection.

16.2. Accessories for Diffuse Reflection.

16.3. Applications of Mid-Infrared Diffuse ReflectionSpectrometry.

16.4. Applications of Near-Infrared Diffuse ReflectionSpectrometry.

16.5. Reference Materials for Diffuse ReflectionSpectrometry.

CHAPTER 17 EMISSION.

17.1. Introduction.

17.2. Infrared Emission Spectra of Gases.

17.3. Infrared Emission Spectra of Condensed-Phase Samples.

17.4. Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy.

CHAPTER 18 FOURIER TRANSFORM RAMAN SPECTROMETRY.

18.1. Introduction.

18.2. Instrumentation.

18.3. FT Raman Versus CCD Raman Spectrometry.

18.4. Applications of FT-Raman Spectrometry.

18.5. Summary.

CHAPTER 19 TIME-RESOLVED SPECTROMETRY.

19.1. Continuous-Scanning Interferometers.

19.2. Time-Resolved Measurements Using Step-ScanInterferometers.

19.3. Stroboscopic Spectrometry.

19.4. Asynchronous Time-Resolved FT-IR Spectrometry.

CHAPTER 20 PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROMETRY.

20.1. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of Gases.

20.2. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of Solids with a Rapid-ScanningInterferometer.

20.3. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of Solids with a Step-ScanInterferometer.

CHAPTER 21 SAMPLE MODULATION SPECTROMETRY WITH A STEP-SCANINTERFEROMETER.

21.1. Dynamic Infrared Linear Dichroism Measured with aMonochromator.

21.2. DIRLD Spectrometry with a Step-Scan Fourier TransformSpectrometer.

21.3. Two-Dimensional Correlation Plots.

21.4. DIRLD Spectrometry with a FT-IR Spectrometery and DigitalSignal Processing.

21.5. Other Sample Modulation Measurements with Step-ScanInterferometers.

CHAPTER 22 ATMOSPHERIC MONITORING.

22.1. Extractive Atmospheric Monitoring.

22.2. Open-Path Atmospheric Monitoring.

CHAPTER 23 COUPLED TECHNIQUES.

23.1. Introduction.

23.2. Light-Pipe-Based GC/FT-IR Interfaces.

23.3. Mobile-Phase Elimination Approaches for GC/FT-IR.

23.4. HPLC/FT-IR Interface.

23.5. SFC/FT-IR Interface.

23.6. TGA/FT-IR.

23.7. Other Coupled Techniques.

INDEX.

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