Freedom As a Value: A Critique of the Ethical Theory of Jean-Paul Sartre

Freedom As a Value: A Critique of the Ethical Theory of Jean-Paul Sartre

by David Detmer

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780812690835
Publisher: Open Court Publishing Company
Publication date: 09/07/2001
Pages: 276
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.62(d)

Table of Contents

Acknowledgementsv
Introduction1
Chapter 1Freedom5
1.1Introduction5
1.2Sartre's Arguments for Freedom6
1.2.1The First Argument: Consciousness is Not What it Is6
1.2.1.1The Rejection of the Phenomenological Reduction9
1.2.1.2The Transcendence of the Ego16
1.2.1.3Acts, Roles, Psychic States, and Emotions22
1.2.2The Second Argument: Consciousness Is What it is Not25
1.2.2.1Imagination26
1.2.2.2Doubt27
1.2.2.3Destruction27
1.2.2.4Interrogation28
1.2.2.5Perception29
1.2.2.6The Experience of Absence31
1.3The Nature of Freedom35
1.3.1The Omnipotence Objection36
1.3.1.1Limitations to Freedom39
1.3.1.1.1Facticity40
1.3.1.1.2Coefficient of Adversity43
1.3.1.1.3Situation46
1.3.1.1.4Human Condition49
1.3.1.1.5Practico-Inert50
1.3.1.1.6Counter-Finality52
1.3.1.1.7My Relations With Others54
1.3.1.2The Omnipotence Objection Answered55
1.3.2The Inconsistency Objection56
1.3.2.1Different Senses of Freedom57
1.3.2.1.1Does Sartre Recognize a Need to Distinguish Between Different Senses of Freedom?58
1.3.2.1.2Does Sartre in Fact Distinguish Between Different Senses of Freedom?59
1.3.2.1.3Are Sartre's Distinctions Between Different Senses of Freedom Relevant?60
1.3.2.1.4Ontological Freedom and Practical Freedom62
1.3.2.1.5An Objection to Sartre's Ontological Freedom69
1.3.2.1.6Some Difficulties with Sartre's Practical Freedom70
1.3.2.2The Inconsistency Objection Answered76
1.3.2.2.1Desan80
1.3.2.2.2Merleau-Ponty85
1.3.3The Radical Break Objection93
1.3.3.1Sartre's Testimony93
1.3.3.2Errors of the Radical Break Theorists96
1.3.3.3Radical Conversion102
1.3.3.4The Radical Break Objection Answered131
1.4Conclusion131
Chapter 2Values133
2.1Introduction133
2.2The Subjectivity of Values and the Subjectivity of Value-Judgments135
2.2.1The Compatibility of the Subjectivity of Values and the Objectivity of Value-Judgments137
2.3Sartre's Arguments for Ethical Subjectivism144
2.3.1The Experience of Values as "Lacks"144
2.3.1.1Criticism of the Argument from the Experience of Values as "Lacks"146
2.3.2The Distinction Between Facts and Values148
2.3.2.1Criticism of the Argument from the Distinction Between Facts and Values149
2.3.3The Hierarchy of Projects150
2.3.3.1Criticism of the Argument from the Hierarchy of Projects152
2.3.4The Nonexistence of God153
2.3.4.1Criticism of the Argument from the Nonexistence of God154
2.3.5Irresolvable Moral Dilemmas155
2.3.5.1Criticism of the Argument from Irresolvable Moral Dilemmas160
2.4General Criticisms of Sartre's Ethical Subjectivism163
2.4.1The Moral Equivalence of All Free Actions164
2.4.2The Authentic Torturer Problem165
2.4.3The Groundlessness of the Value of Authenticity166
2.4.4The Absurdity of Total Subjectivism167
2.4.5The Coefficient of Adversity in Our Value Experience168
2.4.6Responsibility169
2.4.7Anguish173
2.4.8Repentance174
2.5Conclusion176
Chapter 3Freedom as a Value177
3.1Introduction177
3.2Sartre's Ethical Objectivism178
3.2.1Freedom and Needs181
3.3The Problem of Justification186
3.3.1Intuition186
3.3.1.1What Does Sartre Mean by "Intuition"?187
3.3.1.2Are Sartre's Claims About Intuition True?187
3.3.1.3Can Intuition Give Us Ethical Knowledge?196
3.4Subjectivism and Objectivism in Sartre203
3.5Sartre's Contribution to Ethics207
Notes217
Bibliography245
Index257

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