Freemasonry in the Ottoman Empire: A History of the Fraternity and Its Influence in Syria and the Levant

Freemasonry in the Ottoman Empire: A History of the Fraternity and Its Influence in Syria and the Levant

by Dorothe Sommer

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781784536671
Publisher: I. B.Tauris & Company, Limited
Publication date: 11/30/2016
Edition description: Reprint
Pages: 336
Product dimensions: 8.50(w) x 5.40(h) x 1.30(d)

About the Author

Dorothe Sommer holds a PhD in History from The University of Leiden. She formerly worked at The Centre for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism at The University of Sheffield.

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations ix

Acknowledgements xi

Transliteration System xiii

Abbreviations xiv

Introduction 1

1 The Ottoman Empire in the Late Nineteenth Century 27

2 Masonic Principles Challenged 44

3 Masonic Grand Bodies 73

4 Freemasonry in Beirut 84

5 Freemasonry on Mount Lebanon 140

6 Freemasonry in Tripoli and EI Mina 164

Conclusion 213

Appendix I Chronology of the Ottoman Empire with a Focus on the Late Period (1860-1910) 221

II Lodges established in Ottoman Syria with a Focus on Tripoli and El Mina between 1860 and 1911 226

III Exemplary Movements of individual Masons to different Lodges during the first 50 Years of Masonry in Ottoman Syria (1860-1908) 227

IV Freemasons involved in the Press and/or Societies in Ottoman Syria and Egypt 228

Notes 239

Bibliography 291

Index 304

Index of Persons 314

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