In this pathbreaking study of the rise and shape of the earliest churches in Rome, Lampe integrates history, archaeology, theology, and social analysis. He also takes a close look at inscriptional evidence to complement the reading of the great literary texts: from Paul's Letter to the Romans to the writings of Clement of Rome, Justin Martyr, Montanus, and Valentinus. Thoroughly reworked and updated by the author for this English-language edition, this study is a groundbreaking work, broad in scope and closely detailed. Lampe deals with the shape of leadership and the Christians' relation to the Judeans living in Rome. In six parts, comprised of fifty-one chapters and four appendices, Lampe greatly advances our knowledge of the shape of leadership and the Christians' relation to the Judeans living in Rome.