From Soviet Republics to EU Member States addresses the legal and political challenges surrounding the EU accession of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Based upon a profound analysis of the Baltic States’ historic development and international legal status, this book examines the gradual development of bilateral relations between the EU and each of the Baltic countries. It discusses the strategic policy choices made in the EU’s fifth enlargement wave and the consequences of its pre-accession strategies. Specific attention is devoted to the impact of enlargement on the triangular relationship between the EU, the Baltic States and Russia. Finally, the constitutional changes within the Baltic States and within the European Union itself are taken into account.
About the Author
Peter Van Elsuwege studied International Relations and European Law at Ghent University and obtained his Ph.D. in Law in July 2007. His research focuses on EU external relations. He is presently Assistant Professor at the European Institute of Ghent University.
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTIONPART I : The Baltic States in Europe: Historical, Legal and Geopolitical ContextChapter 1. A Struggle for Dominance: From the Northern Crusades to the Russian EmpireChapter 2. The Creation of Independent Baltic RepublicsChapter 3. 1920-1940: The Years of IndependenceChapter 4. Incorporation into the Soviet UnionChapter 5. 1985-1991: National Reawakening and the Restoration of IndependenceChapter 6. Defining the International Legal Status of the Baltic States: State Continuity or State Succession?Conclusions: The Determinant Role of the Baltic States’ History and International Legal StatusPART II : The Legal Framework of Relations between the EC/EU and the Baltic States before Accession to the EUChapter 1. The Incremental Making of the EC’s Ostpolitik: Towards a Policy of DifferentiationChapter 2. Integrating the Baltic States in the EC/EU’s External PoliciesChapter 3. Catching up with the Countries of Central and Eastern EuropeChapter 4. Consequences for the Internal Legal Order of the Baltic StatesChapter 5. The Emergence of an EU Policy towards the Baltic Sea Region: Characteristics and LimitationsChapter 6. Explaining the Development of EC/EU-Baltic Relations: Internal and External FactorsConclusions: The Baltic States and the European Union: Assessment of the Evolving RelationshipPART III : The Baltic States and the EU’s Pre-Accession StrategiesChapter 1. The Legal Framework of EU EnlargementChapter 2. The Introduction of a ‘Pre-Accession Strategy’Chapter 3. The Dilemmas of Differentiation between the Candidate CountriesChapter 4. The ‘Enhanced Pre-Accession Strategy’: Reconciling Inclusion and DifferentiationChapter 5. Preparing for Enlargement: Reconciling Widening and DeepeningConclusions: Characteristics of the EU’s Enlargement Methodology and Pre-accession StrategiesPART IV : The Accession Negotiations: A Post-Factum AnalysisChapter 1. The Legal Framework of EU Accession NegotiationsChapter 2. Accession Negotiations in Practice: The Case of the Baltic StatesChapter 3. Drafting the Treaty of AccessionConclusions: The Treaty of Accession and Differentiation in the EUPART V : The Impact of EU Enlargement on the Triangular Relationship between the EU, Russia and the Baltic StatesChapter 1. Towards a New Approach in EU-Russia Relations?Chapter 2. Remaining Challenges in Baltic-Russian RelationsChapter 3. The Role of the Baltic States in the EU’s Relations with RussiaConclusions: EU Enlargement as a “Deus ex Machina”?PART VI : The Constitutional Consequences of EU Enlargement: Developments at the National and European LevelChapter 1. The Adaptation of the Baltic States’ Legal SystemsChapter 2. The Role of the Baltic States in the Process of European ConstitutionalisationConclusions: The Constitutional Challenges after EnlargementGENERAL CONCLUSIONS