During the past three decades, the cerebral vasculature and its role in blood-brain transport has been an increasingly active area of investigation and learning, particularly from an anatomical and physiological point of view. However, much less is known at the molecular and cellular level about the blood-brain barrier especially regarding the macromolecules responsible for transport, the roles played by vascular wall components (endothelial cell, pericyte, smooth muscle, basement membrane), and the mechanisms regulating brain vascular-specific protein expression and their molecular alterations during development and disease. Fundamental questions still unanswered include: What are the molecular constituents of brain endothelial cell tight junctions? What are the membrane proteins responsible for transport of specific substrates? What are the molecular signals that cause glucose transporter gene expression to be 20 to 100 times greater in brain endothelial cells in vivo than in vitro? What roles do pericytes, smooth muscle cells and basement membrane have in establishing or maintaining blood-brain transport characteristics? Are brain vascular transport systems responsible for edema following injury? Are transporter systems regulated via receptor-mediated events? Do hormones or neuromodulators regulate transporter expression? What is the molecular mechanism by which plasma proteins enter the extravascular space? Are transporters asymmetrically distributed between the luminal and abluminal endothelial cell membranes? Can prodrugs or pharmacologic agents be designed as substrate analogs and be delivered to the central nervous system via existing transporters or receptors? Can new and beneficial transporters be introduced into the brain vasculature?
Table of ContentsDevelopmental Expression of GlucoseTransporters, GLUT1 and GLUT3, in Postnatal Rat Brain.- Alterations in Brain Glucose Transporter Proteins, GLUT1 and GLUT3, in Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats.- Glucose Transporter (GLUT1) Expression by Canine Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells in Culture: An Immunocytochemical Study.- Application of Novel PCR Strategies to Amplify and Sequence Glucose Transporters in Canine Brain.- Estimation of Unidirectional Clearances of FDG and Glucose across the Blood-Brain Barrier in Man.- Rat Brain Glucose Concentration and Transport Kinetics Determined With 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.- Non-Invasive Measurements of the Cerebral Steady-State Glucose Concentration and Transport in Humans by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.- Potassium Transport at the Blood-Brain and Blood-CSF Barriers.- Expression of Na, K-ATPase at the Blood-Brain Interface.- Effects of Protein Kinase C Agonists on Na, K-ATPase Activity in Rat Brain Microvessels.- Brain Volume Regulation during Development: The Role of Blood-Brain Barrier Potassium Transport.- The Transendothelial DC Potential of Rat Blood-Brain Barrier Vessels in Situ.- Phosphate Transport in Capillaries of the Blood-Brain Barrier.- Drug Delivery to Brain and the Role of Carrier-Mediated Transport.- Vasopressin Modulates the Blood-Brain Transfer of Amino Acids Studies with [11C]Methionine in Dogs.- Amino Acid Transport at the Blood-Nerve Barrier of the Rat Peripheral Nerve.- Effect of Intra-Uterine Growth Retardation on Cerebral Amino Acid Transport from Birth to Adulthood.- Drug Transfer across the Blood-Brain Barrier: Comparison of in Vitro and in Vivo Models.- Differential Brain Penetration of Cerebroprotective Drugs.- P-Glycoprotein Is Strongly Expressed in Brain Capillaries.- Transport of Proteins Across the Blood-Brain Barrier via the Transferrin Receptor.- Endothelial Cell Biology and the Enigma of Transcytosis through the Blood-Brain Barrier.- Blood-Brain Transport of Vasopressin.- Cerebral Pericytesa Second Line of Defense in Controlling Blood-Brain Barrier Peptide Metabolism.- The Role of Second Messenger Molecules in the Regulation of Permeability in the Cerebral Endothelial Cells.- Peptidergic Induction of Endothelin 1 and Prostanoid Secretion in Human Cerebromicrovascular Endothelium.- Endothelin-1 Binding to Human Brain Microvascular and Capillary Endothelium: Membranes vs. Intact Cells.- Possible Involvement of C-Kinase in Occurrence of Chronic Cerebral Vasospasm after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.- A Novel Gene Family May Encode Endothelial Cell Specific Adhesion-Like Molecules: An Extracellular Loop-Repeat-Loop (LRL) Motif and Cytoplasmic Tyrosine Kinase Domains.- Plasminogen Activation and Astroglial-Induced Neural Microvessel Morphogenesis.- Immortalized Rat Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells: I - Expression of Blood-Brain Barrier Markers during Angiogenesis.- Immortalized Rat Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells: II-Pharmacological Characterization.- Expression of the HT7 Gene in Blood-Brain Barrier.- Astrocytes Secrete a Factor Inducing the Expression of HT7-Protein and Neurothelin in Endothelial Cells of Chorioallantoic Vessels.- Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) Vessels Do Not Respond to Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) Induction.- Cerebral Endothelium and Astrocytes Cooperate in Supplying Docosahexaenoic Acid to Neurons.- Effect of Cytokines on ICAM Expression and T Cell Adhesion to Cerebrovascular Endothelial Cells.- Expression of Endothelial Cell Activation Antigens in Microvessels from Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.- Generation of an Anti-Mouse Brain Endothelial Cell Monoclonal Antibody That Recognizes 84-110 kDa and 36 kDa Determinants That Are Upregulated by Cytokines.- The Use of Intracerebral Microdialysis to Study Blood-Brain Barrier Transport in Health, after Modification and in Disease.- Cerebral Endothelial Mechanisms in Increased Permeability in Chronic Hypertension.- Altered Fatty Acid Composition of Ethanolamine Phosphoglyceride in Brain Microvessels from Senescent Mouse.- Preirradiation Osmotic Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Plus Combination Chemotherapy in Gliomas: Quantitation of Tumor Response to Assess Chemosensitivity.- The Uptake of Thyroxine by the Isolated Perfused Choroid Plexus of the Sheep.- Participants.