FTCE Exceptional Student Education K-12 (061) Book + Online 2e

FTCE Exceptional Student Education K-12 (061) Book + Online 2e

Paperback(Second Edition, Revised)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780738612386
Publisher: Research & Education Association
Publication date: 04/23/2018
Series: FTCE Teacher Certification Test Prep
Edition description: Second Edition, Revised
Pages: 312
Sales rank: 328,975
Product dimensions: 8.40(w) x 10.70(h) x 1.00(d)
Age Range: 18 Years

About the Author

Dr. Maryann Gromoll is an Associate Professor for Exceptional Student Education and Elementary Education at Daytona State College. She has been in the education field for more than 40 years, teaching exceptional student education in grades K-12 in three states. She was an Exceptional Education Teacher/Behavior Specialist in the Orange County (Fla.) School District. Dr. Gromoll is an active member of Teachers without Borders, leading student groups to where the need is greatest. She lives in Ocoee, Florida, with her husband, Kim. She has two children, Michael and Nik. Michael is a recent Florida State University graduate and Nik is a University of Central Florida alumnus.

Read an Excerpt


Competency 1: Knowledge of Foundations of Exceptional Student Education

This chapter introduces some of the legal, professional, and scientific foundations of the education of exceptional students.

Skill 1

Identify state and federal legislation that govern the education of students with exceptionalities.

In this section you will find information about some of the federal and state laws that impact the education of students with disabilities.


The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) is the federal law that governs the education of children with disabilities. This law was first introduced in 1975 as the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, and was revised, renamed, and reauthorized in 1997 and 2004.

IDEIA is often simply referred to as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which was the name of the law immediately prior to its reauthorization in 2004. You will also see reference to the law as IDEA 2004. All material in this chapter pertains to the current version of the law.

An Overview of IDEA

Through IDEA, the federal government provides states with funding for exceptional student education. The states must in turn comply with numerous requirements that pertain to children ranging from birth to age twenty-one. These requirements can be briefly summarized as follows:

• States must conduct Child Find activities to identify and evaluate children who may have disabilities. Students who may have a disability must be evaluated, at no cost to parents, for their eligibility for exceptional student education services. Parents must be involved in the evaluation process. (Throughout this chapter, the term "parents" will be used as shorthand for "parent(s) or guardian(s).") Either parents or a school professional such as a teacher may request an evaluation, but parental consent is required before evaluation of an individual student can take place.

• Students with disabilities are entitled to the same kinds of educational experiences as their peers without disabilities. Schools must provide each child with a disability an educational experience that is appropriate to his or her age and abilities, at no cost to the parents. This requirement of IDEA is referred to as a free appropriate public education (FAPE).

• Students with disabilities are to be educated in the least restrictive environment (LRE), meaning that their educational experiences must be as similar as possible to those of children who do not have disabilities. The goal of the LRE requirement is for students with disabilities to remain in the general education classroom to the greatest extent possible, with the fewest possible changes to day-to-day routines, and to be removed from regular classes and/or provided with exceptional student education (ESE) services only when the severity of their disability requires doing so in order for them to be educated appropriately.

• Between the ages of three and twenty-one, each student with a disability must have an individualized education plan (IEP) that describes the child's present level of progress and learning capacity, the short- and long-term educational goals for the child, and the accommodations and services that will be provided in order to achieve those goals. (Prior to age three, each child who shows signs of developmental delay must have an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP), a written document similar to the IEP that focuses on the family and the child's natural environment.) The IEP is a written document created by a team typically consisting of the child's parents, an exceptional student education professional, a general education teacher, a representative of the school, and others, as appropriate. The educational objectives described in the IEP must be aligned with state curriculum standards for general education. By age sixteen, the IEPs must include a description of the student's goals following graduation as well as the transition services needed to achieve those goals.

• The rights and interests of parents and their children with disabilities must be protected through confidentiality with respect to children's educational records, nondiscriminatory practices in the assessments used to determine disability status, the provision of information about parents' and children's rights to the parents in the form of procedural safeguards, and the opportunity for parents to express dissatisfaction with their children's educational experience through due process hearings and other means.

More detail about these and other requirements will be provided throughout this chapter. Further information about IDEA is available on the Internet at the U.S. Department of Education website. In addition, the Florida Department of Education website contains information about IDEA as well as state laws pertaining to the education of exceptional students.

Other Legislation

Along with IDEA, other federal legislation affects the education of students with disabilities. For example:

• The Vocational Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act(ADA) forbid discrimination against individuals with disabilities.

• The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) helps ensure the privacy of educational records such as IEPs.

• The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased the accountability of schools with respect to the academic progress of students with disabilities.

Every Student Success Act (ESSA) requires data on student achievement and graduation rates to be reported as well as action in response to that data. However, unlike NCLB, states, districts, and schools will determine what support and interventions are implemented. Exceptional student education in Florida is also regulated by state-level legislation. Within the Florida Department of Education, the Bureau of Exceptional Education and Student Services publishes a summary of Florida laws and State Board of Education rules that concern exceptional students. These laws and rules are consistent with and extend the provisions of IDEA and other federal legislation.

Skill 2

Classify the characteristics of students with exceptionalities using the eligibility criteria of categories included in current state and federal laws and regulations governing K–12 education programs.

In this section you will find information about the classification of disabilities given in IDEA, as well as the general criteria for eligibility.

IDEA identifies numerous categories of disability as well as providing definitions and examples of each category:

Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities

IDEA defines "infants and toddlers with disabilities" as children between birth and age three who are experiencing developmental delays in one or more of the following areas:

• cognitive development

• physical development

• social or emotional development

• communication development

• adaptive development

Infants and toddlers with disabilities also includes children between birth and age three who have been diagnosed with a condition that is highly likely to produce one or more types of developmental delay. Finally, states and local education agencies have the option of using the term "developmental delay" for a child between the ages of three and nine, if the child exhibits delays in one of the aforementioned areas, and as a result of the delay the child needs special education and related services.

Children with Disabilities

For the age range three to twenty-one years, IDEA lists thirteen categories of disability:

• autism

• deaf-blindness

• deafness

• emotional disturbance

• hearing impairment

• intellectual disability

• multiple disabilities

• orthopedic impairment

• other health impairment

• specific learning disability

• speech or language impairment

• traumatic brain injury

• visual impairment


As discussed later in this chapter, eligibility for exceptional student education (ESE) services is based on the results of an evaluation conducted by a group known as the assessment team. Children who are considered eligible for exceptional student education (ESE) services must be reevaluated every three years, if not more frequently. The parents may at any time request a hearing to challenge the eligibility determination.

In general, a child is considered eligible for exceptional student education (ESE) services if the evaluation team concludes that the child has one of the thirteen types of disability listed above, and the child's educational performance is adversely affected by the disability. Both conditions must be met in order for the child to be eligible for special education services. The child need not be failing in school in order to be deemed eligible. Again, each particular state may choose to also consider developmental delay, along with the resulting need for special education and related services, as sufficient criteria for eligibility.

Skill 3

Compare typical and atypical development of physical, cognitive, linguistic, social, and emotional stages of students in the K–12 educational system.

This section consists of descriptions of the 13 categories of disability listed in the previous section.

Autism refers to a developmental disability, generally detectable before age three, that affects communication, social interaction, and learning. The child with autism may show language delays, unusual speech patterns, aversion to eye contact and touch, repetitive behaviors, and resistance to change in daily routines.

Deaf-blindness refers to simultaneous hearing and visual impairments that are so severe the student cannot benefit sufficiently from programs and services that are designed for exclusively deaf or exclusively blind children. Deaf-blindness is usually congenital (i.e., present at birth) but may be adventitious (i.e., acquired through illness or injury).

Deafness refers to an extreme hearing impairment that adversely affects the student's educational performance. Deafness may be congenital or adventitious.

Emotional disturbance refers to a condition that reflects at least one of the following characteristics over an extended period of time: (i) an inability to learn that cannot be attributed to other factors, such as intellectual or sensory deficits, or health problems; (ii) an inability to build or sustain satisfactory personal relationships with others; (iii) feelings or behaviors that are ordinarily inappropriate; (iv) pervasive unhappiness or depression; and (v) a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears related to personal problems or problems at school. Schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, and depression are among the many examples.

Hearing impairment refers to an impairment in hearing that undermines the student's educational performance but is not severe enough to be classified as deafness. Hearing impairments may be congenital or adventitious. Children with hearing difficulties are classified as hearing impaired only if the difficulties persist even after corrections (e.g., surgery and/or use of hearing aids).

Intellectual disability refers to general intellectual ability that is significantly below average, combined with limitations in adaptive behavior, that adversely affects the student's educational performance. The primary example would be an intellectual disability, which is often congenital but may be adventitious. The phrase "adaptive behavior" in the definition indicates that intellectual disabilities involve not only much lower than average intelligence, but also impairments in the extent of the child's social competence and independence.

Multiple disabilities refers to a combination of disabilities that is so severe the student cannot benefit sufficiently from programs and services that are designed for any one of those disabilities.

Orthopedic impairment refers to musculoskeletal problems, congenital or adventitious, that adversely influence the student's educational performance.

Examples include cerebral palsy, polio, amputations, and so on.

Other health impairment refers to health problems affecting strength, energy, or alertness to a degree that adversely affects the student's educational performance.

Among the many examples would be leukemia, epilepsy, diabetes, asthma, lupus, and sickle cell anemia.

Specific learning disability refers to problems with the ability to comprehend or produce information when performing academic tasks. Dyslexia, dyscalculia, and minimal brain dysfunction are among the many examples. Such learning disabilities are usually congenital but may be adventitious. The term "specific" indicates that this disability is restricted to particular school subjects or tasks. A student with a specific learning disability may perform well in some subjects or tasks but poorly on others. These students are not impaired in general learning ability, in other words, but rather in some specific skill or skills.

Speech or language impairment refers to communication disorders that adversely affect the student's educational performance. Examples include articulation disorders, stuttering, and mutism. Such learning disabilities are usually congenital but may be adventitious.

Traumatic brain injury refers to any acquired injury to the brain that undermines the student's educational performance. Such injuries may result from accidents involving motor vehicles, sports, and other causes. Children with traumatic brain injury may have impairments in physical, behavioral, cognitive, social, and/or emotional functioning, depending on the nature and severity of the injury.

Visual impairment refers to visual problems that adversely influence the student's educational performance. Visual impairments are usually congenital but may be adventitious. Children with visual difficulties are only classified as visually impaired if the difficulties persist even after corrections (e.g., surgery and/or use of corrective lenses).

Skill 4

Interpret principles and practices in the provision of education for students with exceptionalities based on legal and ethical standards.

In this section you will find additional information about these and other requirements discussed in the IDEA legislation.


Inclusion refers to the practice of educating students with disabilities in the general education classroom, so that they may participate in day-to-day routines alongside students without disabilities to the greatest extent possible. Inclusion is a general principle that is closely related to the legal concept of least restrictive environment (LRE) discussed earlier. IDEA does not guarantee inclusive education to students with disabilities, but through the LRE requirement it ensures that inclusion is a sort of default, or normative scenario, for which there may be exceptions. In other words, IDEA requires that students with disabilities be included in the general education classroom and only removed and/or provided with exceptional student services if the classroom environment cannot be modified to adequately support students' educational progress.

Inclusion can be contrasted with the older practice of mainstreaming, in which students with disabilities were included in the general education classroom only when their achievement would be near grade level without substantial support. The main difference between inclusion and mainstreaming is that inclusion treats the general education classroom as the student's primary placement, along with the general education teacher as the student's primary instructor. Educational practices that require the student with disabilities to spend time outside the general classroom, or to be instructed by other experts, are considered supplementary.

Transition Planning

The free appropriate public education (FAPE) requirement of IDEA was extended in the 2004 reauthorization to include not just current educational experiences but also preparation for additional education or training, employment opportunities, and independent living. This new emphasis on transition is intended to help prepare students with disabilities for life after their K–12 education. The IEP team is required to take responsibility for planning transition services. These services may include help with identifying and applying to college or vocational school, seeking employment, finding a place to live in the community, and so on. By age sixteen, the student's IEP must contain a postsecondary plan that indicates the goals for life beyond school and describes the transition services necessary to achieve those goals.


Together with the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), IDEA provides for the confidentiality of education records that are created and maintained for children with disabilities. Confidentiality must be maintained with respect to information that might unnecessarily identify a student as having a disability. Parents must be informed of this requirement and must give consent in order for personally identifiable information to be shared outside the school district. Parents must also have access to all such information maintained by the school.

The IEP is an education record created specifically for children with disabilities. The contents of the IEP must be kept confidential, except when school staff have a legitimate need to be aware of the contents. The amount of information a teacher, for example, may have about a particular child's IEP will vary from student to student. Parents may request that the teacher(s) have access to information in the IEP.


Excerpted from "FTCE Exceptional Student Education K–12 [061]"
by .
Copyright © 2018 Research & Education Association, Inc..
Excerpted by permission of Research & Education Association.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

Table of Contents

About Our Authors, x,
About REA, xi,
Acknowledgments, xi,
Getting Started, 1,
Chapter 1: Competency 1: Knowledge of Foundations of Exceptional Student Education, 9,
Chapter 2: Competency 2: Knowledge of Assessment and Evaluation, 39,
Chapter 3: Competency 3: Knowledge of Instructional Practices in Exceptional Student Education, 63,
Chapter 4: Competency 4: Knowledge of the Positive Behavioral Support Process, 97,
Chapter 5: Competency 5: Knowledge of Multiple Literacies and Communication Skills, 117,
Chapter 6: Competency 6: Knowledge of the Transition Process, 151,
Practice Test 1 (also available online at wwwreacom/studycenter), 169,
Practice Test 2 (also available online at wwwreacom/studycenter), 227,
Index, 281,

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