Polymers are an important part in everyday life; products made from polymers range from sophisticated articles, such as biomaterials, to aerospace materials. One of the reasons for the great popularity exhibited by polymers is their ease of processing. Polymer properties can be tailored to meet specific needs by varying the “atomic composition” of the repeat structure, by varying molecular weight and by the incorporation (via covalent and non-covalent interactions) of an enormous range of compounds to impart specific activities.
In food science, the use of polymeric materials is widely explored, from both an engineering and a nutraceutical point of view. Regarding the engineering application, researchers have discovered the most suitable materials for intelligent packaging which preserves the food quality and prolongs the shelf-life of the products. Furthermore, in agriculture, specific functionalized polymers are used to increase the efficiency of treatments and reduce the environmental pollution. In the nutraceutical field, because consumers are increasingly conscious of the relationship between diet and health, the consumption of high quality foods has been growing continuously. Different compounds (e.g. high quality proteins, lipids and polysaccharides) are well known to contribute to the enhancement of human health by different mechanisms, reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary disease, and hypertension.
This second volume focuses on the importance of polymers and functional food and in food processing
About the Author
Giuseppe Cirillo received his PhD in 2008 from the University of Calabria, Italy, where he is currently in a post-doctoral position. His research interests are in the development of functional polymers with tailored biological activity, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer chelating,, the design of smart hydrogels for drug delivery, the study of the activity of innovative functional foods and nutraceuticals, and the synthesis and functionalization of carbon nanotubes, based devices for biomedical applications. He is the author and coauthor of more than 100 publications, including four edited books with Wiley Scrivener.
Umile Gianfranco Spizzirri obtained his PhD in 2005 from the University of Calabria. He is currently a member of the Technical Staff at the Department of Pharmacy, Nutrition and Health Science of the same university. His research activities are mainly related to the polymer chemistry and technology for the preparation of stimuli-responsive drug delivery system, functional polymers for food industry, and new analytical methodologies for the food quality and safety assessment. He is the author and coauthor of more than 100 publications, including three edited books with Wiley Scrivener.
Table of Contents
Preface xiii1 Functional Polymers for Food Processing 1Giuseppe Cirillo, Umile Gianfranco Spizzirri and Francesca Iemma1.1 Introduction 11.2 Food Preparation 21.3 Food Processing: Rheology 51.4 Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals 5References 62 Polyacrylamide Addition to Soils: Impacts on Soil Structure and Stability 9Guy J. Levy and David N. Warrington2.1 Introduction 92.2 Polyacrylamide (PAM) Properties and Interactions with Soil 102.3 Polymer Effects on Aggregate Stability 142.4 PAM Effects on Soil Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity 162.5 PAM Effects on Infiltration, Runoff and Erosion 192.6 Concluding Comments 25References 263 Functional Polymeric Membrane in Agriculture 33Yuichi Mori3.1 Introduction 333.2 Principle of Imec 343.3 Imec System 373.4 Plant Cultivation by Imec System 393.5 Comparison between Imec and Hydroponics 403.6 Current Domestic State of Imec Growth 423.7 Imec Vegetables besides Tomato 433.8 Imec Changes Barren Land to Farming Land 433.9 Current State of Overseas Growth of Imec 45References 454 Enzymes Used in Animal Feed: Leading Technologies and Forthcoming Developments 47Daniel Menezes-Blackburn and Ralf Greiner4.1 Introduction: General Outline and Value Drivers 484.2 Feed Digestive Enzymes 494.3 Actual and Potential Feed Enzyme Market 594.4 Advances in Feed Enzyme Technology 604.5 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 63Acknowledgments 63References 635 Interaction of Biomolecules with Synthetic Polymers during Food Processing 75K. Narsaiah5.1 Introduction 755.2 Basic Biomolecules in Food and Their Interactions with Synthetic Polymers 765.3 Membranes for Food Processing 785.4 Chromatography for Food Processing 915.5 Analogy of Ultrafiltration and Size Exclusion Chromatography 925.6 Future Perspectives of Membranes and Chromatography 93References 946 Rheological Properties of Non-starch Polysaccharides in Food Science 99Anna Ptaszek, Pawel Ptaszek and Marcin Lukasiewicz6.1 Non-starch Hydrocolloids 996.2 Rheological Properties of Non-starch Hydrocolloid Systems 108References 1297 Polysaccharides as Bioactive Components of Functional Food 133Patricia Peso-Echarri, Carlos Alberto González-Bermúdez, Gaspar Ros-Berruezo, Carmen Martinez-Graciá and Carmen Frontela-Saseta7.1 Introduction 1347.2 Functional Foods 1357.3 Polysaccharides from Seaweed 1377.4 Functional Activity of Polysaccharides 1417.5 Conclusions 150References 1508 Milk Proteins: Functionality and Use in Food Industry 159Seval Andiç and Gökhan Boran8.1 Introduction 1598.2 Milk Proteins 1618.3 Milk Protein Products 1638.4 Functional Properties of Milk Proteins 1668.5 Conclusions 174References 1759 Bioactive Peptides from Meat Proteins as Functional Food Components 181Jianping Wu, Forough Jahandideh, Wenlin Yu and Kaustav Majumder9.1 Introduction 1819.2 Generation of Bioactive Peptides in Meat 1839.3 Meat-Derived Bioactive Proteins and Peptides 1849.4 Conclusion 196References 19710 Antioxidant Polymers: Engineered Materials as Food Preservatives and Functional Foods 209Manuela Curcio and Nevio Picci10.1 Introduction 20910.2 Antioxidant Polymers as Food Additives 21110.3 Antioxidant Polymers as Dietary Supplements and Functional Foods 21510.4 Conclusion 223References 22311 Biopolymers for Administration and Gastrointestinal Delivery of Functional Food Ingredients and Probiotic Bacteria 231Kasipathy Kailasapathy11.1 Introduction 23111.2 Characteristics of the Gastrointestinal Tract 23311.3 Bioencapsulation Techniques for Administration and Gastrointestinal Delivery 23711.4 Polymeric Materials for Microencapsulation 24711.5 Biopolymers in the Encapsulation of Nonmicrobial Functional Food Ingredients 25011.6 Biopolymers in the Encapsulation of Functional Microbes (Probiotics) for Administration and Gastrointestinal Delivery 25511.7 Conclusion and Future Trends 258References 25912 Cyclodextrin as a Food Additive in Food Processing 267Katia Martina and Giancarlo Cravotto12.1 Introduction 26812.2 Inclusion Complex Formation 27012.3 Covalent Polymer Networks Containing Cyclodextrins 27112.4 Regulatory Issues for CDs as Food Additives and Use in Food Processing 27112.5 Applications of CD in Food 27212.6 Cholesterol Sequestration 27312.7 Taste Modifiers 27412.8 Product Stability and Food Preservatives - Improving Shelf Life 27712.9 Nutraceutical Carriers - Functional Foods 27712.10 Packaging 27812.11 Conclusion 281References 28213 Enzymes and Inhibitors in Food and Health 289Nana Akyaa Ackaah-Gyasi, Priyanki Patel, Julie Ducharme, Hui Yin Fan and Benjamin K. Simpson13.1 Introduction 29013.2 Traditional Methods of Producing Enzymes 29413.3 Biotechnological Methods for Producing Enzyme 29913.4 Enzymes in Food Processing 30913.5 Endogenous Enzyme Inhibitors from Food Materials 31313.6 Concluding Remarks 320References 321Index 329