ISBN-10:
0321909070
ISBN-13:
2900321909076
Pub. Date:
01/29/2014
Publisher:
Pearson
Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology - Text Only / Edition 10

Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology - Text Only / Edition 10

by Frederic H. Martini

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900321909076
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 01/29/2014
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 1264
Product dimensions: 8.60(w) x 11.00(h) x 1.60(d)

About the Author

Frederic (Ric) H. Martini, Ph.D.
Author
Dr. Martini received his Ph.D. from Cornell University in comparative and functional anatomy for work on the pathophysiology of stress. In addition to professional publications that include journal articles and contributed chapters, technical reports, and magazine articles, he is the lead author of 10 undergraduate texts on anatomy and physiology or anatomy. Dr. Martini is currently affiliated with the University of Hawaii at Manoa and has a long-standing bond with the Shoals Marine Laboratory, a joint venture between Cornell University and the University of New Hampshire. He has been active in the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS) for over 24 years and was a member of the committee that established the course curriculum guidelines for A&P. He is now a President Emeritus of HAPS after serving as President-Elect, President, and Past-President over 2005–2007. Dr. Martini is also a member of the American Physiological Society, the American Association of Anatomists, the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, the Australia/New Zealand Association of Clinical Anatomists, the Hawaii Academy of Science, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the International Society of Vertebrate Morphologists.

Edwin F. Bartholomew, M.S.

Author
Edwin F. Bartholomew received his undergraduate degree from Bowling Green State University in Ohio and his M.S. from the University of Hawaii. Mr. Bartholomew has taught human anatomy and physiology at both the secondary and undergraduate levels. In addition, he has taught a range of other science courses (from botany to zoology) at Maui Community College (now the University of Hawaii Maui College). For many years, he taught at historic Lahainaluna High School (LHS), the oldest high school west of the Rockies, where he assisted in establishing an LHS Health Occupations Students of America (HOSA) chapter. He is a coauthor of Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, Visual Anatomy & Physiology, Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, Visual Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, Structure and Function of the Human Body, and The Human Body in Health and Disease (all published by Pearson). Mr. Bartholomew is a member of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS), the National Association of Biology Teachers, the National Science Teachers Association, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Judi L. Nath, Ph.D.
Author
Dr. Judi Nath is a biology professor and the writer-in-residence at Lourdes University, where she teaches at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Primary courses include anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, medical terminology, and science writing. She received her bachelor’s and master’s degrees from Bowling Green State University, which included study abroad at the University of Salzburg in Austria. Her doctoral work focused on autoimmunity, and she completed her Ph.D. from the University of Toledo. Dr. Nath is devoted to her students and strives to convey the intricacies of science in captivating ways that are meaningful, interactive, and exciting. She has won the Faculty Excellence Award—an accolade recognizing effective teaching, scholarship, and community service—multiple times and in 2013 was named as an Ohio Memorable Educator. She is active in many professional organizations, notably the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS), where she has served several terms on the board of directors. Dr. Nath is a coauthor of Visual Anatomy & Physiology, Visual Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, Anatomy & Physiology, and Human Anatomy (published by Pearson), and she is the sole author of Using Medical Terminology and Stedman’s Medical Terminology (published by Wolters Kluwer). Her favorite charities are those that have significantly affected her life, including the local Humane Society, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, and the ALS Association. In 2015, she and her husband established the Nath Science Scholarship at Lourdes University to assist students pursuing science-based careers. When not working, days are filled with family life, bicycling, and hanging with the dogs.

William C. Ober, M.D.
Art Coordinator and Illustrator
Dr. Ober received his undergraduate degree from Washington and Lee University and his M.D. from the University of Virginia. He also studied in the Department of Art as Applied to Medicine at Johns Hopkins University. After graduation, Dr. Ober completed a residency in Family Practice and later was on the faculty at the University of Virginia in the Department of Family Medicine and in the Department of Sports Medicine. He also served as Chief of Medicine of Martha Jefferson Hospital in Charlottesville, Virginia. He is currently a Visiting Professor of Biology at Washington and Lee University, where he has taught several courses and led student trips to the Galapagos Islands. He was on the Core Faculty at Shoals Marine Laboratory for 24 years, where he taught Biological Illustration every summer. Dr. Ober has collaborated with Dr. Martini on all of his textbooks in every edition.

Claire E. Ober, R.N.
Illustrator
Claire E. Ober, R.N., B.A., practiced family, pediatric, and obstetric nursing before turning to medical illustration as a full-time career. She returned to school at Mary Baldwin College, where she received her degree with distinction in studio art. Following a 5-year apprenticeship, she has worked as Dr. Ober’s partner in Medical & Scientific Illustration since 1986. She was on the Core Faculty at Shoals Marine Laboratory and co-taught the Biological Illustration course with Dr. Ober for 24 years. The textbooks illustrated by Medical & Scientific Illustration have won numerous design and illustration awards.

Christine Boudrie, M.D.
Clinical Contributor
Dr. Boudrie studied at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, for her B.S. in biology, and also obtained her M.D. there. After graduation she served in the National Health Service Corps, a program of the U.S. Public Health Service, which sponsored her last 2 years of medical school. She was assigned to provide health education to the rural communities of southeast Michigan with a special focus on seniors. She has had the great pleasure of working with a variety of undergraduate and graduate students in the Northeast and Midwest, earning teaching excellence awards and a nomination for Carnegie Foundation’s U.S. Professor of the Year in 2014. Currently, she chairs the Department of Biology and Health Sciences at Lourdes University, a small Franciscan liberal arts school in northwest Ohio. Dr. B’s passion is the vital engagement of her students in the study of anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology. She often brings in references to her love of the arts, of cooking, and of reading across the disciplines. Her family fosters stray dogs and cats, and maintains an organic home garden and orchard in the country.

Ruth Anne O’Keefe, M.D.
Clinical Contributor
Dr. O’Keefe did her undergraduate studies at Marquette University, attended graduate school at the University of Wisconsin, and received her M.D. from George Washington University. She was the first woman to study orthopedics at The Ohio State University during her residency. She did fellowship training in trauma surgery at Loma Linda University in California. In addition to her private orthopedic practice, she has done orthopedic surgery around the world, taking her own surgical teams to places such as the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Peru, New Zealand, and Burkina Faso. She serves on the board of Global Health Partnerships, a group that partners with a clinic serving 35,000 people in remote Kenya. Dr. O’Keefe has always enjoyed teaching and now supervises medical students from the University of New Mexico doing ongoing research in Kenya. She lives in Albuquerque with her Sweet Ed. She is mother of four, grandmother of nine, and foster mother to many.

Kevin Petti
Smart Art Video Contributor
Dr. Petti is a professor at San Diego Miramar College, and teaches courses in human anatomy and physiology, human dissection, and health education. He is President Emeritus of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS) and holds a doctorate from the University of San Diego. As a dual U.S./Italian citizen, he also teaches courses in Italy that focus on the genesis of anatomy as a science and its influence on the Renaissance masters, a story unique to the Italian peninsula. His students range from anatomy professors pursuing continuing education to undergraduates in study abroad programs. Dr. Petti is often invited to speak about the connection between art and anatomy in medieval and Renaissance Italy at museums, conferences, and universities. The Italian government has invited him to speak at their Cultural Institutes in Los Angeles and New York City, and the University of Palermo in Sicily included him in a seminar series celebrating its 210th anniversary.

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

This laboratory textbook is the embodiment of the thoughts and ideas of my students and colleagues alike, all of whom have spent countless hours discussing how best to conceptualize anatomy and physiology-not only for the benefit of health care students, but for biological science and general education students as well.

Although this conceptual laboratory textbook is written primarily to accompany Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, Fifth Edition, by Frederic Martini, it can be used as a stand alone text. Both cat and fetal pig dissection exercises are included, in back-to-back format.

Organization

The organization of the exercises in this text parallels the order of topics in the Martini text. Concept Links to specific pages or topics within the Martini text are included where appropriate throughout this manual.

Anatomy and physiology are presented as separate exercises to allow for greater flexibility in adapting to the constraints of various classroom and laboratory settings. Dissection exercises are separate from the human-oriented exercises for the same reason. We assume that certain exercises will be combined and in the Instructor's Manual we offer suggestions for logical exercise combinations.

In addition to the basic anatomy and physiology labs, certain exercises—such as those in the introductory lessons—can be used in class or assigned as outside review material. Other exercises-such as those on anatomical terminology and skeletal terminology—can be referred to throughout the course. Clinically focused exercises—such as the EEG, blood testing, andurinalysis labs—are included where appropriate.

Unit I provides background information. It is designed specifically for those students who may need to review or conceptualize some basic scientific ideas. Unit II supplies the foundation for anatomy and physiology today by examining both the microscopic and the macroscopic structures and functions of the human body. Units III through XII examine the major systems of the body. Each unit begins with basic systemic anatomy and proceeds through the developmental and physiological aspects of the system., Dissection is included where appropriate. Unit XIII deals with the future of the human species. This unit is recommended particularly for those students who have not had a course in introductory biology prior to studying anatomy and physiology.

Pedagogical Features

The pedagogical features of this laboratory manual have been designed not only to highlight and integrate the essential concepts and terminology of anatomy and physiology, but to give the student an understanding of the corresponding scientific processes.

Most anatomy and physiology labs are hands-on learning centers where the student has the opportunity to use a variety of learning methods unique to the laboratory setting, such as examining models or slides, dissecting real animals, and performing experiments. Laboratory time is also used to practice vocabulary (often putting terms and concepts together for the first time), to create models, or to perform demonstrations which help master essential concepts. We have attempted to emphasize to the student that there are different ways of approaching new material, that there are different kinds of questions that can be answered using each method.

Exercise Format
We have created an Advance Organizer for each exercise which integrates traditional exercise objectives into a framework of different learning activities. Objectives have been formulated as questions, or Procedural Inquiries. These Socratic Objectives, based on the time-tested Socratic method, help the student see that science is about asking as well as answering questions. This Socratic framework serves as an overview of what is to follow in the laboratory period, and as a vehicle to show that the question asked often determines the procedures used. The student discovers the answers to the inquiries as s/he completes the lab exercise.

The primary learning categories used throughout this lab manual to help the student focus on a particular aspect of an exercise are these:

  • Preparation: Includes physical preparation and safety instructions, as well as certain conceptual overviews and vocabulary background information.
  • Examination: Includes observation of models or slides, in addition to gross or histological specimens.
  • Dissection: Includes all animal and organ dissections.
  • Model-building: Includes certain demonstrations and models made by students.
  • Practice: Includes skill mastery drills and procedures.
  • Experimentation: Includes all tests and actual experiments.
  • Additional Inquiries: Includes important objectives that are not achieved directly by examination or experimentation, but rather by synthesizing information the student has learned or read.

Each exercise is organized in a modified Outline Format. The Roman numerals denote the major topics, and the capital letters introduce the subtopics. The procedures themselves are written in a short, step-by-step manner within the outline. All procedures (and only the procedures) are indicated with Arabic numerals. This design helps the student distinguish between background material and the actual tasks at hand, and ensures that all steps in each procedure are accomplished in the correct order.

Where appropriate, Drawing Boxes are provided for the student to record gross or microscopic observations. These boxes are labelled for easy reference when the student reviews the exercise.

Clinical Comments are included throughout the laboratory manual to provide interesting information on diseases and disorders as they apply to concepts under consideration in the lab.

Frequent Concept Check Questions are found in each exercise. These questions quiz the student about the concept under consideration, ask the student to consider the implications of the laboratory procedures, and urge the student to recall relevant personal experience or personal insight. Some of these questions are checked with a distinctive icon. At the end of each exercise, these checked questions are answered in the Answers to Selected Concept Check Questions. In some cases, additional paper may be required.

An Additional Activities section is included for enrichment at the end of most laboratory exercises. Some of these additional activities require outside research; others require internal investigation or an extension of what has been covered in the laboratory exercise. Often the needs of the class will dictate the manner in which the additional activities are utilized.

The Lab Report begins with a Box Summary, in which the student is asked to organize the factual material presented in the exercise. Numbers given with each box correspond to the numbers found on the Advance Organizer inquiries. After completing the laboratory exercise, the student should be able to fill in these boxes. Should difficulty arise, however, the student can refer to the opening inquiries as "hints:" All questions are answered in the main body of the exercise.

The second part of the lab report includes a series of questions which the student should be able to answer after working through the procedures. Some of these questions are similar to given inquiries posed in the advance organizer. Some reports may require extra paper.

Supplements

Instructor's Manual
In writing the Instructor's Manual, I have focused on flexibility and conceptualization. Each laboratory is bound by a unique set of constraints, and it is important that each exercise exhibit a great deal of flexibility without sacrificing the central theme of the lesson. Some schools teach anatomy and physiology as two separate courses, while other schools integrate anatomical and physiological concepts throughout the span of a one-, two, or even three-term sequence. Some schools have as little as one hour per week for laboratory work while other schools have as many as four; and some schools have extensive equipment while at other schools, equipment is quite limited.

Because of this need for flexibility, the Instructor's Manual offers numerous suggestions for combining or modifying different laboratory exercises to meet specific academic agendas.

Recommendations are made to help the instructor with his or her laboratory ideas according to the defined needs of a particular program. Instructors wishing to use equipment other than that prescribed in the text will find suggestions for alternatives or substitutions throughout.

Adaptation is further enhanced by the modified outline format used in presenting the exercises. Parts of the outline can be enhanced or omitted according to need.

This outline format is also a part of our theme of conceptualization. The philosophy of the manual itself is that an understanding of anatomy and physiology is essential for today's student. In the Instructor's Manual we discuss conceptualization and explain what we believe are the primary concepts or ideas of the individual exercises. I have tried to offer suggestions for the implementation of these concepts by pointing out the essence of each exercise and demonstrating the logical and sequential framework around which each exercise is constructed.

Finally, we stress conceptualization by exploring ways in which the instructor can coordinate the inquiry-based objectives in the advance organizer with the concluding Lab Report which is specifically designed to bring together the various aspects of the laboratory exercise.

Table of Contents

1. An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology.
2. The Chemical Level of Organization.
3. The Cellular Level of Organization.
4. The Tissue Level of Organization.
5. The Integumentary System.
6. Osseous Tissue and Skeletal Structure.
7. The Axial Skeleton.
8. The Appendicular Skeleton.
9. Articulations.
10. Muscle Tissue.
11. The Muscular System.
12. Neural Tissue.
13. The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves.
14. The Brain and Cranial Nerves.
15. Integrative Functions.
16. The Autonomic Nervous System.
17. Sensory Function.
18. The Endocrine System.
19. Blood.
20. The Heart.
21. Blood Vessels and Circulation.
22. The Lymphatic System and Immunity.
23. The Respiratory System.
24. The Digestive System.
25. Metabolism and Energetics.
26. The Urinary System.
27. Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance.
28. The Reproductive System.
29. Development and Inheritance.

Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

This laboratory textbook is the embodiment of the thoughts and ideas of my students and colleagues alike, all of whom have spent countless hours discussing how best to conceptualize anatomy and physiology-not only for the benefit of health care students, but for biological science and general education students as well.

Although this conceptual laboratory textbook is written primarily to accompany Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, Fifth Edition, by Frederic Martini, it can be used as a stand alone text. Both cat and fetal pig dissection exercises are included, in back-to-back format.

Organization

The organization of the exercises in this text parallels the order of topics in the Martini text. Concept Links to specific pages or topics within the Martini text are included where appropriate throughout this manual.

Anatomy and physiology are presented as separate exercises to allow for greater flexibility in adapting to the constraints of various classroom and laboratory settings. Dissection exercises are separate from the human-oriented exercises for the same reason. We assume that certain exercises will be combined and in the Instructor's Manual we offer suggestions for logical exercise combinations.

In addition to the basic anatomy and physiology labs, certain exercises—such as those in the introductory lessons—can be used in class or assigned as outside review material. Other exercises-such as those on anatomical terminology and skeletal terminology—can be referred to throughout the course. Clinically focused exercises—such as the EEG, blood testing,andurinalysis labs—are included where appropriate.

Unit I provides background information. It is designed specifically for those students who may need to review or conceptualize some basic scientific ideas. Unit II supplies the foundation for anatomy and physiology today by examining both the microscopic and the macroscopic structures and functions of the human body. Units III through XII examine the major systems of the body. Each unit begins with basic systemic anatomy and proceeds through the developmental and physiological aspects of the system., Dissection is included where appropriate. Unit XIII deals with the future of the human species. This unit is recommended particularly for those students who have not had a course in introductory biology prior to studying anatomy and physiology.

Pedagogical Features

The pedagogical features of this laboratory manual have been designed not only to highlight and integrate the essential concepts and terminology of anatomy and physiology, but to give the student an understanding of the corresponding scientific processes.

Most anatomy and physiology labs are hands-on learning centers where the student has the opportunity to use a variety of learning methods unique to the laboratory setting, such as examining models or slides, dissecting real animals, and performing experiments. Laboratory time is also used to practice vocabulary (often putting terms and concepts together for the first time), to create models, or to perform demonstrations which help master essential concepts. We have attempted to emphasize to the student that there are different ways of approaching new material, that there are different kinds of questions that can be answered using each method.

Exercise Format
We have created an Advance Organizer for each exercise which integrates traditional exercise objectives into a framework of different learning activities. Objectives have been formulated as questions, or Procedural Inquiries. These Socratic Objectives, based on the time-tested Socratic method, help the student see that science is about asking as well as answering questions. This Socratic framework serves as an overview of what is to follow in the laboratory period, and as a vehicle to show that the question asked often determines the procedures used. The student discovers the answers to the inquiries as s/he completes the lab exercise.

The primary learning categories used throughout this lab manual to help the student focus on a particular aspect of an exercise are these:

  • Preparation: Includes physical preparation and safety instructions, as well as certain conceptual overviews and vocabulary background information.
  • Examination: Includes observation of models or slides, in addition to gross or histological specimens.
  • Dissection: Includes all animal and organ dissections.
  • Model-building: Includes certain demonstrations and models made by students.
  • Practice: Includes skill mastery drills and procedures.
  • Experimentation: Includes all tests and actual experiments.
  • Additional Inquiries: Includes important objectives that are not achieved directly by examination or experimentation, but rather by synthesizing information the student has learned or read.

Each exercise is organized in a modified Outline Format. The Roman numerals denote the major topics, and the capital letters introduce the subtopics. The procedures themselves are written in a short, step-by-step manner within the outline. All procedures (and only the procedures) are indicated with Arabic numerals. This design helps the student distinguish between background material and the actual tasks at hand, and ensures that all steps in each procedure are accomplished in the correct order.

Where appropriate, Drawing Boxes are provided for the student to record gross or microscopic observations. These boxes are labelled for easy reference when the student reviews the exercise.

Clinical Comments are included throughout the laboratory manual to provide interesting information on diseases and disorders as they apply to concepts under consideration in the lab.

Frequent Concept Check Questions are found in each exercise. These questions quiz the student about the concept under consideration, ask the student to consider the implications of the laboratory procedures, and urge the student to recall relevant personal experience or personal insight. Some of these questions are checked with a distinctive icon. At the end of each exercise, these checked questions are answered in the Answers to Selected Concept Check Questions. In some cases, additional paper may be required.

An Additional Activities section is included for enrichment at the end of most laboratory exercises. Some of these additional activities require outside research; others require internal investigation or an extension of what has been covered in the laboratory exercise. Often the needs of the class will dictate the manner in which the additional activities are utilized.

The Lab Report begins with a Box Summary, in which the student is asked to organize the factual material presented in the exercise. Numbers given with each box correspond to the numbers found on the Advance Organizer inquiries. After completing the laboratory exercise, the student should be able to fill in these boxes. Should difficulty arise, however, the student can refer to the opening inquiries as "hints:" All questions are answered in the main body of the exercise.

The second part of the lab report includes a series of questions which the student should be able to answer after working through the procedures. Some of these questions are similar to given inquiries posed in the advance organizer. Some reports may require extra paper.

Supplements

Instructor's Manual
In writing the Instructor's Manual, I have focused on flexibility and conceptualization. Each laboratory is bound by a unique set of constraints, and it is important that each exercise exhibit a great deal of flexibility without sacrificing the central theme of the lesson. Some schools teach anatomy and physiology as two separate courses, while other schools integrate anatomical and physiological concepts throughout the span of a one-, two, or even three-term sequence. Some schools have as little as one hour per week for laboratory work while other schools have as many as four; and some schools have extensive equipment while at other schools, equipment is quite limited.

Because of this need for flexibility, the Instructor's Manual offers numerous suggestions for combining or modifying different laboratory exercises to meet specific academic agendas.

Recommendations are made to help the instructor with his or her laboratory ideas according to the defined needs of a particular program. Instructors wishing to use equipment other than that prescribed in the text will find suggestions for alternatives or substitutions throughout.

Adaptation is further enhanced by the modified outline format used in presenting the exercises. Parts of the outline can be enhanced or omitted according to need.

This outline format is also a part of our theme of conceptualization. The philosophy of the manual itself is that an understanding of anatomy and physiology is essential for today's student. In the Instructor's Manual we discuss conceptualization and explain what we believe are the primary concepts or ideas of the individual exercises. I have tried to offer suggestions for the implementation of these concepts by pointing out the essence of each exercise and demonstrating the logical and sequential framework around which each exercise is constructed.

Finally, we stress conceptualization by exploring ways in which the instructor can coordinate the inquiry-based objectives in the advance organizer with the concluding Lab Report which is specifically designed to bring together the various aspects of the laboratory exercise.

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