ISBN-10:
0023171952
ISBN-13:
9780023171956
Pub. Date:
09/28/1992
Publisher:
Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
Fundamentals of Chemistry

Fundamentals of Chemistry

by Ralph A. Burns

Paperback

View All Available Formats & Editions
Current price is , Original price is $24.75. You
Select a Purchase Option
  • purchase options

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780023171956
Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
Publication date: 09/28/1992

Read an Excerpt

To the Instructor

The wide acceptance and success of the third edition of this textbook provided the impetus for making refinements and modifications that are designed to make the text even more appealing and effective. A successful text is, by definition, a work in progress. A special thank you is extended to all users and reviewers who have made helpful suggestions that will enable this new edition to effectively address the needs of today's student population.

This text is written especially for students who have had no instruction—or limited instruction—in chemistry. It is for the broad range of students who are in the process of preparing themselves for subsequent courses in chemistry and other sciences. It is also for students who are preparing to enter nursing, allied health, and technical programs, and for students in a variety of disciplines who take the course for general education purposes.

Although chemistry is everywhere—and without it life would not be possible—excitement and anticipation for learning about chemicals and chemical reactions is frequently not evident among students. Instead, students often approach the study of chemistry with considerable apprehension. Furthermore, chemistry educators at all levels express a genuine concern about the limited science background and mathematical skills of many students. Beginning students especially need help to

  • overcome their fears,
  • approach chemistry with confidence,
  • develop problem-solving and critical-thinking skills,
  • apply principles of chemistry when solving problems,
  • appreciate exciting real-world connections and applications of chemistry, and
  • understand that chemistry is a part of everyday life.

In this fourth edition, we have addressed the goals listed here by extending and enhancing the blend of learning approaches directed at common problems students often have in understanding chemistry. Only when a student is competent will she or he be able to overcome fear, and have confidence.

To help students achieve real understanding, this text does the following things.

Addresses student attitudes from the start. Preceding Chapter 1 is a letter to students that addresses student apprehension and study techniques. It lists six levels of thought processes, describes ten principles of productive study, and gives steps and actions that lead to success. Specific study techniques are recommended for use before lectures, during lectures, and before exams. Instead of expecting students to automatically know how to approach the study of chemistry, we suggest and provide successful learning strategies.

Meets students where they are. Each chapter begins with an introduction that relates new topics to common applications and provides a rationale for learning. Throughout each chapter, care has been taken to provide a framework for learning that is built on simple and thorough explanations along with margin notes that point to learning connections, real-world connections, and medical connections. The learning connections help students relate new topics to terms, concepts, and problems in previous sections and point to later topics where the concept will be needed or further developed. Thus, major points are brought to the students" attention more than once. Repetition increases retention; applications increase understanding.

NEW: Connections are everywhere. Margin notes have specific headings toy focus student attention on Learning Connections, Real World Connections, ands Medical Connections. Boxes are used when the application or connection is discussed in greater detail. Students learn new concepts by making connections to) familiar concepts and examples. Thus, in-text explanations involving, common substances and simple analogies are frequently used to help students think through new, concepts. See all margin notes and Figure 11.4 (Making sandwiches and limiting; reactants), Figure 4.7 (Connecting metals and nonmetals with positions in the periodic table), Figure 4.27 (Counting by weighing), Figures 8.6 and 8.7 (Electronegativity trends—concepts and icons), and the Box, Properties of Sulfur, in Section 2.5. Also see periodic table icons in Figures 7.11, 7.12, 7.18, 7.19, 7.28, and other figures.

Helps students visualize chemistry. To get a student's attention, the material must be inviting and interesting but in addition, teaching materials must help students visualize atoms, molecules, molecular structures, and chemical changes. Art is important. Furthermore, color is very much a part of chemistry and our everyday lives. It is used in this text as a learning tool. Color-coded periodic tables (Figures 5.32, 5.33, 5.36 and the periodic table on the inside cover) repeatedly use the same color scheme to encourage students to make connections and thus facilitate learning. Up-to-date four-color photographs and figures are used extensively throughout this text to help students visualize chemistry.

NEW: Zoom-out windows picturing materials at the atomic and molecular level alongside the macroscopic image have been added to help students think more like a chemist, picturing in the mind what is happening at the molecular level. See Figure 8.1 (Reaction of sodium and chlorine), Figure 10.2 (Burning magnesium), Figure 10.22 (Precipitation), Figure 14.3 (Dissolving a salt), and Figure 14.16 (Osmosis).

Emphasizes learning in small steps. Beginning with Chapter 2, each section of a chapter contains one or more worked-out examples, for a total of over 250 representative worked-out examples. In this edition, each example is followed by two exercises—a simple exercise and a more complex one—for a total of over 500 exercises to be used by the student as self-tests. Solutions to exercises are given in Appendix F. The examples and exercises provide students with a structured method of reviewing major points within a section before proceeding to the next section. Problem-solving strategies or "concept maps" and step-by-step explanations accompany the worked-out examples. They serve as models for working end-of-chapter problems, which are referenced in the margin beside exercises.

NEW: Many of the 250 worked-out Examples are broken down into small steps. Examples in this edition are followed by two Exercises—the (a) Exercise is simple, the (b) Exercise is more complex—with answers in Appendix F. See Examples 9.13 to 9.18, Exercises 9.13 to 9.18, and Examples 11.2 to 11.6 along with the accompanying Exercises 11.2 to 11.6 and related Figures, 11.1 and 11.2.

Provides matched pairs of problems. Over 1950 end-of-chapter problems in matched pairs provide ample opportunity for "learning by doing"—the method of science. A set of problems arranged by topic and from simple to more complex is followed by a small set of multi-concept challenge problems (suggested by reviewers) and a large set of additional problems. Answers to odd-numbered problems are given in Appendix F. The Student Study Guide and Solutions Manual provides complete worked-out solutions to the odd-numbered problems. The odd-numbered and even-numbered problems make up two sets of problems having equivalent difficulty, so an instructor who does not want students to have access to answers can assign the even-numbered problems. The Instructor's Solutions Manual contains complete solutions to all problems.

NEW: There is a 20 percent increase in end-of-chapter problems for this textbook. The new problems have been distributed throughout. See Chapters 4, 8, 9, 10, and 12.

Emphasizes the process of science. Problem solving cannot stand alone; it requires an understanding of terms and concepts. Simple problems are often worked incorrectly when fundamental principles are confused. Furthermore, students encounter the "process of science" as they think through the experiments that led to major discoveries and use realistic experimental data to support scientific laws. For example, the text describes experiments that led to the law of conservation of mass and current applications (Chapter 2), Dalton's atomic theory (Chapter 4), discoveries that changed our models of atoms (Chapter 5), and experiments that provide information about chemical bonding (Chapter 8) and gases (Chapter 12). When possible, results of experiments are presented before a law is stated to create a "need to know" learning environment. We intend to demonstrate that the search for answers—in the past, the present, and the future—can be both exciting and challenging.

NEW: Chapter 8, Chemical Bonds, has been significantly updated, with new art to enhance learning. See Table 8.2, Section 8.8, and Figures 8.11, 8.15, and 8.18. Chapter 15, Reaction Rates and Chemical Equilibrium, has been thoroughly rewritten. Additional images have been added along with updated line-art to help students visualize important and difficult equilibrium concepts. See Figures 15.3, 15.4, 15.6, 15.13, 15.14, and 15.15.

Emphasizes the language of chemistry. Chemical terms and chemical formulas are used to communicate chemistry; they must be understood before problems can be solved. Key terms appear in boldface print in the text where they are defined and are listed at the end of the chapter for review. Chapter 6 provides a thorough treatment of chemical nomenclature. This "stand alone" chapter can be presented earlier, later, or in small sections, at the discretion of the instructor.

NEW: The number of end-of-chapter problems involving chemical formula writing and nomenclature has been expanded to provide more flexibility. Margin notes give Learning Connections with cross-references for key terms defined or discussed previously. See Margin notes in Sections 14.1, 14.2, 14.4, 14.5, and 14.7.

Provides real-world applications. Numerous special boxes, in-text descriptions, and margin notes present applications, real-world connections, word-picture illustrations, and points of historical emphasis for virtually every principle that is discussed. These materials help students understand that chemistry is a part of everyday life. Moreover, learning is made easier when new knowledge is connected and related to familiar points.

NEW: Some margin notes and many figures in the previous edition were replaced by eye-catching, up-to-date images that show chemistry applications. See Figures 7.15, 10.1, 10.10, 15.6, 16.1, 17.1, 17.2, 19.6, 20.2 20.21 and the boxes, Sunscreens, in Section 5.2, Oxygen, in Section 17.2, Octane Ratings, in Section 19.4, and others.

Emphasizes the fundamentals. Special attention is given to providing clear and simple descriptions of topics that often confuse beginning students. Examples include (1) setting up and using conversion factors in solving problems, (2) developing a plan or "concept map" when solving problems, (3) using an appropriate number of significant digits in answers, (4) writing chemical formulas and chemical equations correctly, and (5) using the periodic table as a tool in predicting properties and reactions of chemicals.

NEW: See new art used to enhance learning of concepts: Figures 3.5, 3.1 3.18,4.27,5.23,8.11,11.1,11.4,and11.5.

Helps students evaluate learning. A self-evaluation feature called "Asses Your Understanding: A Self-Check Review" precedes the list of key terms and end of-chapter problems. This feature consists of a short list—keyed to chapter sections—outlining what a student should be able to do to demonstrate thorough understanding of the major points within the chapter. In-chapter examples and exercises for each section as well as the end-of-chapter problems mentioned earlier also serve as self-checks.

NEW: To provide more in-chapter self-checks, Examples are now followed by two Exercises—the (a) Exercise that is simple and the (b) Exercise that is more complex.

Supplements For the Student

Study Guide and Solutions Manual (0-13-033779-X) by Julie Frentrup of Eastern Michigan State University and Suzanne Saum of Lindenwood College provide students with worked-out solutions to all the in-text exercises as well as the odd-numbered end-of-chapter problems. The Study Guide portion contains a chapter-by-chapter overview with practice problems applied to each major concept in the text, followed by two or three self-tests with answers at the end of each chapter.

Fundamentals of Chemistry in the Laboratory, Third Edition (0-13-033726-9) is the author's own laboratory manual designed specifically to accompany this textbook.

Math Review Toolkit (0-13-033734-X) by Gary L. Long of Virginia Polytechnic: Institute. This brief paperback is engineered for students who find math a significant challenge in this course. The book provides a review of the mathematics used throughout the text, a guide to preparing for a career in chemistry, and a review of some of the special writing requirements often needed in the introductory chemistry course.

Companion Website for Fundamentals of Chemistry, Fourth Edition, at www.prenhall.com/burns. This innovative on-line resource center is designed specifically to support and enhance the Burns text. The Website features the following: Explorer and Master Quizzes—multiple choice quizzes that are automatically graded to give students instant feedback on their responses, and can be submitted to an instructor; Web Exploration links maintained by Prentice Hall that point both students and instructors to additional resources and activities on the Internet for each chapter; and an interactive Math Tutorial that echoes the Math Review Toolkit.

Introductory Chemistry Media Companion (0-13-033729-3) This student CD is divided into topics that echo the coverage in an introductory chemistry course. Each topic includes video clips, animations, rotatable molecular models, and interactive simulations that allow students to visit the material in the textbook in a highly visual, responsive way. Self-assessment questions on each topic give the students additional drill to check that they understand the concepts. The CD is packaged in a booklet that helps students find Internet resources appropriate for chemistry.

For the Instructor

Instructor's Solutions Manual (0-13-033724-2) by Suzanne Saum of Lindenwood College provides worked-out solutions to all in-chapter and end-of-chapter questions and problems.

Test Item File (0-13-033710-2) by Julie Frentrup of Eastern Michigan State University has been revised to reflect the revision in this text book and contains 10% new questions in a bank of over 1500 multiple choice questions.

TestGen-EQ (0-13-033722-6) The computerized version of the Test Item File is available on a dual-platform CD-ROM. The software available with this database allows you to create and tailor exams to your specific needs.

Transparency Set (0-13-033725-0) Over 120 full-color transparencies chosen from the text put principles into visual perspective and save you time while you are preparing your lectures.

MediaPortfolio (0-13-033728-5) An instructor CD-ROM that contains almost all of the art from the text. Using the included MediaPortfolio software, instructors can browse for figures and other media elements by thumbnail and description as well as search by key word or title. This CD also contains a pre-built PowerPoint Presentation by Joe A. Wilson of Olney Central College.

Instructor's Manual to accompany Fundamentals of Chemistry in the Laboratory, Third Edition (0-13-033727-7).

Table of Contents

CONTENTS

Most chapters end with a Chapter Summary, Assess Your Understanding, Key Terms, and Problems section.
A Letter to the Students.
1. Chemistry is Everywhere.
Chemistry in Our World. Chemistry at Work: Chemistry and the Automobile Industry. A Scientific Approach to Solving Problems. Hypothesis to Theory: The Scientific Method. Searching for Answers: Applied and Basic Research. Chemistry in Our World: Chemistry and Deep-Sea Diving. Chemistry: A Central Science in Your Education.

2. Matter and Energy.
Matter. Matter Has States. Elements and Compounds. Pure Substances and Mixtures. Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes. A Closer Look: Properties of Sulfur. The Law of Conservation and Mass. Faces of Chemistry: Chemistry Becomes a Quantitative Science. Energy and Chemical Change. Chemistry in Our World: Getting Rid of Solid Waste. Chemistry in Our World: Photosynthesis and Metabolism. The Law of Conservation of Energy. The Conservation of Matter to Energy.

3. Fundamental Measurements.
Metric and SI Units. Metric Length Measurement and Approximations. Conversion Factors and Dimensional Analysis. Metric Volume Measurement and Conversions. Metric Mass Measurement and Conversions. Conversion of Metric and English Units. Uncertainty in Measurement. Significant Figures. Scientific Notation. A Closer Look: Counting Millions and Billions. A Closer Look: How Much is One Part Per Billion? Density and Specific Gravity. Measurement of Temperature. Temperature and Heat Energy.

4. Elements, Atoms, and the Periodic Table.
Elements: Ancient and Modern Theory. A CloserLook: Searching for the Elements. Names and Symbols. Abundant and Rare Elements. The Periodic Table of Elements. Physical Properties of Elements. Atoms: Democritus to Dalton. A Closer Look: Experimental Verification. Dalton's Atomic Theory. Atoms and Subatomic Particles. Isotopes. Atomic and Subatomic Particles. Isotopes. Atomic Masses of the Elements. Counting with Moles. Molar Masses and Chemical Formulas: An Introduction.

5. Atomic Structure: Atoms and Ions.
The Discovery of Atomic Structure. Faces of Chemistry: The Curies. The Electromagnetic Spectrum. Chemistry in Our World: Sunscreens and Sunblocks. Chemistry at Work: IR Spectrometers. Excited Electrons and Spectra. Chemistry in Our World: Fireworks and Flame Colors. Electrons in Atoms. Chemistry in Our World: Excited Electrons and Spectra. Faces of Chemistry: Niels Bohr. The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom. A Closer Look: The Uncertainty Principle. Energy Levels of Electrons. Valance Electron and Lewis Symbols. Faces of Chemistry: Gilbert N. Lewis. Electronic Structure: Optional Additional Insights. Energy Sublevels and Orbitals. Energy Sublevels and the Periodic Table. Electron Configurations and Orbital Diagrams.

6. Names, Formulas, and Uses of Inorganic Compounds.
Monatomic Ions. Polyatomic Ions. Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds. The Use of Parentheses in Chemical Formula Writing. Determining the Names of an Ionic Compounds from Its Formula. Names and Formulas of Binary Compounds of Nonmetals. Chemistry in Our World: Nitric Oxide, Memory, and Aging. Oxidation Numbers of Atoms in Polyatomic Compounds. Nomenclature of Acids and Their Salts. Chemistry in Our World: Sodium Nitrate, a Closer Look. Hydrates. Some Chemicals and Their Uses. Chemistry in Our World: Sodium Carbonate, a Key Chemical.

7. Periodic Properties of Elements.
Making Order Out of Chaos: Discoveries of Periodicity. The Periodic Table Today. Atomic and Ionic Size. Ionization Energy. Melting Point and Boiling Point Trends. Density and Conductivity Trends. A Survey of Elements by Groups. Chemistry in Our World: "Buckyballs" Discovery Merits 1996 Nobel Prize. Transition Metals. Inner Transition Metals.

8. Chemical Bonds.
Ionic Bonds. Covalent Bonds. Electronegativity. Polar Covalent Bonds. Metallic Bonding. Conductivity, Solubility, and Other Clues to Chemical Bonding. Writing Lewis Electron-Dot Formulas. Chemistry in Our World: Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide. Shapes of Molecules: Balloon Models and Electron Pair Repulsion. Chemistry in Our World: Free Radicals and Ozone Layer Depletion. Water: A Bent Molecule. Ammonia: A Trigonal Pyramidal Molecule. Ammonium Ions and Coordinate Covalent Bonds. Methane: A Tetrahedral Molecule. Molecular Structures and Periodic Table. Hydrogen Bonding.

9. Chemical Quantities.
Formula Weights and Molecular Weights. Moles and Molar Masses. A Closer Look: How Big Is Avogadro's Number? Composition Calculations. Mass and Mole Conversions. Calculations Involving Avogadro's Number. Molarity. Empirical Formulas and Molecular Formulas. Determination of Empirical Formulas.

10. Chemical Reactions.
Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations. What Balanced Chemical Equations Tell Us. Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations. Classifying Reactions. Combustion. Chemistry in Our World: Combustion, Carbon Dioxide, and the Greenhouse Effect. Synthesis (Combination) Reactions. Decomposition Reactions. Reactions of Metals. Reactions of Nonmetals. Double-Replacement Reactions. Ionic and Net Ionic Equations. Chemistry in Our World: Chemical Reactions in Limestone Caves. Neutralization: A Double-Replacement Reaction.

11. Stoichiometry: Calculations Based on Chemical Equations.
Mole Ratios. Mole-Mole Calculations. Calculations Involving Moles and Masses. Calculations Involving Molar Solutions. Limiting Reactant Calculations. Percent Yield. Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions.

12. Gases.
The Atmosphere. The Kinetic Molecular Theory. A Closer Look: Gas Pressure Units. Atmospheric Pressure. Boyle's Law: Gas Pressure and Volume. Charles's Law: Gas Volume and Temperature. Gay-Lussac's Law: Gas Pressure and Temperature. Chemistry in Our World: Popcorn and the Gas Laws. Standard Temperature and Pressure. The Combined Gas Law. Avogadro's Law: Gas Volume and Moles. Molar Volume and Gas Density at STP. The Ideal Gas Law. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures. Gas Stoichiometry: Putting It All Together.

13. Liquids and Solids.
Gases, Liquids, and Solids: Some Generalizations. Interionic and Intermolecular Forces. The Liquid State. Vaporization and Condensation. The Solid State. Melting and Freezing. Heating and Cooling Curves. Water: A Most Unusual Liquid. Chemistry in Our World: Flash Freezing.

14. Solutions.
What Is a Solution? Solubility Terminology. The Solubility of Ionic Compounds. The Solubility of Covalent Compounds. Solubility Equilibria. Effects of Temperature and Pressure on Solubility. Solution Concentration Expressions. Chemistry in Our World: Lead: How Much Is Too Much? Colligative Properties of Solutions. Colloids. Osmosis and Dialysis (optional).

15. Reaction Rates and Chemical Equilibrium.
Reaction Rates: Collision Theory. Factors That Control Reaction Rates. Chemistry in Our World: Body Temperatures. Chemistry at Work: Reaction Mechanisms. Chemistry at Work: Automobile Catalytic Converters. Reversible Reactions and Equilibrium. Le Chatelier's Principle. Chemistry at Work: Ammonia Synthesis. The Effect of a Catalyst on a System. The Equilibrium Constant Expression.

16. Acids and Bases.
Acids and Bases: The Arrhenius Theory. Strong and Weak Acids. Chemistry at Work: Sulfuric Acids. Strong and Weak Bases. Reactions of Acids. Chemistry in Our World: Acid Rain. Chemistry in Our World: Is There Acid in Your Dough? Reactions of Bases. Chemistry in Our World: Antacid Chemistry. Bronsted-Lowry Definitions of Acids and Bases. Lewis Definitions of Acids and Bases. The Self-Ionization of Water. The pH Scale. Hydrolysis: Salts in Water. Buffers: Controlling the pH. Chemistry in Our World: Buffers in the Blood. Acid-Base Titrations.

17. Oxidation and Reduction.
Oxidation Numbers: A Review. Oxidation and Chemical Properties of Oxygen. Chemistry in Our World: Oxygen. Reduction and Chemical Properties of Hydrogen. A Closer Look: Hydrogen. Some Important Oxidizing Agents. Chemistry at Work: Hydrogen Peroxide. Chemistry in Our World: Antiseptics and Disinfectants. Some Important Reducing Agents. Chemistry at Work: Bleaching and Stain Removal. Chemistry in Our World: Photography. Oxidation and Reduction Half-Reactions. Electrolytic Cells. Voltaic Cells. A Closer Look: Corrosion.

18. Fundamentals of Nuclear Chemistry.
Natural Radioactivity. Half-life. Measuring Radiation: The Units. Radiation Detectors. Background Radiation. Chemistry in Our World: Radon-222 in Our Lives. Artificial Transmutations. Induced Radioactivity. Chemistry at Work: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scans. Practical Uses of Some Radioisotopes. Chemistry at Work: Dating the Shroud of Turin. Nuclear Fission: Splitting Atoms. Nuclear Power Plants. A Closer Look: Nuclear Power. Nuclear Fusion. A Closer Look: Nuclear Energy.

19. Organic Chemistry.
General Properties of Organic and Inorganic Chemicals. Alkanes: The Saturated Hydrocarbons. Using Structural Formulas. The Universal Language: IUPAC Nomenclature. Chemistry at Work: Gasoline and Octane Ratings. Alkenes and Alkynes: Unsaturated Hydrocarbons. Chemistry in Our World: Two Polyethylenes. Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Alcohols. Chemistry in Our World: Ethyl Alcohol. Phenols. Ethers. Aldehydes and Ketones. Carboxylic Acids and Esters. Amines and Amides.

20. Biochemistry.
Carbohydrates. Lipids. Chemistry in Our World: Saturated and Unsaturated Fats in Your Diet. Amino Acids and Proteins. Nucleic Acids. Chemistry in Our World: Genetic Engineering. Some Vitamins and Hormones.

Appendix A: Metric and English Conversions and Some Physical Constants.
Appendix B: Basic Algebra Operations.
Appendix C: Exponential Notation.
Appendix D: Using Conversion Factors to Solve Problems.
Appendix E: Glossary.
Appendix F: Solutions to Exercises and Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems.
Index.

Introduction

To the Instructor

The wide acceptance and success of the third edition of this textbook provided the impetus for making refinements and modifications that are designed to make the text even more appealing and effective. A successful text is, by definition, a work in progress. A special thank you is extended to all users and reviewers who have made helpful suggestions that will enable this new edition to effectively address the needs of today's student population.

This text is written especially for students who have had no instruction--or limited instruction--in chemistry. It is for the broad range of students who are in the process of preparing themselves for subsequent courses in chemistry and other sciences. It is also for students who are preparing to enter nursing, allied health, and technical programs, and for students in a variety of disciplines who take the course for general education purposes.

Although chemistry is everywhere--and without it life would not be possible--excitement and anticipation for learning about chemicals and chemical reactions is frequently not evident among students. Instead, students often approach the study of chemistry with considerable apprehension. Furthermore, chemistry educators at all levels express a genuine concern about the limited science background and mathematical skills of many students. Beginning students especially need help to

  • overcome their fears,
  • approach chemistry with confidence,
  • develop problem-solving and critical-thinking skills,
  • apply principles of chemistry when solving problems,
  • appreciate exciting real-world connections and applications of chemistry,and
  • understand that chemistry is a part of everyday life.

In this fourth edition, we have addressed the goals listed here by extending and enhancing the blend of learning approaches directed at common problems students often have in understanding chemistry. Only when a student is competent will she or he be able to overcome fear, and have confidence.

To help students achieve real understanding, this text does the following things.

• Addresses student attitudes from the start. Preceding Chapter 1 is a letter to students that addresses student apprehension and study techniques. It lists six levels of thought processes, describes ten principles of productive study, and gives steps and actions that lead to success. Specific study techniques are recommended for use before lectures, during lectures, and before exams. Instead of expecting students to automatically know how to approach the study of chemistry, we suggest and provide successful learning strategies.

• Meets students where they are. Each chapter begins with an introduction that relates new topics to common applications and provides a rationale for learning. Throughout each chapter, care has been taken to provide a framework for learning that is built on simple and thorough explanations along with margin notes that point to learning connections, real-world connections, and medical connections. The learning connections help students relate new topics to terms, concepts, and problems in previous sections and point to later topics where the concept will be needed or further developed. Thus, major points are brought to the students" attention more than once. Repetition increases retention; applications increase understanding.

NEW: Connections are everywhere. Margin notes have specific headings toy focus student attention on Learning Connections, Real World Connections, ands Medical Connections. Boxes are used when the application or connection is discussed in greater detail. Students learn new concepts by making connections to) familiar concepts and examples. Thus, in-text explanations involving, common substances and simple analogies are frequently used to help students think through new, concepts. See all margin notes and Figure 11.4 (Making sandwiches and limiting; reactants), Figure 4.7 (Connecting metals and nonmetals with positions in the periodic table), Figure 4.27 (Counting by weighing), Figures 8.6 and 8.7 (Electronegativity trends--concepts and icons), and the Box, Properties of Sulfur, in Section 2.5. Also see periodic table icons in Figures 7.11, 7.12, 7.18, 7.19, 7.28, and other figures.

• Helps students visualize chemistry. To get a student's attention, the material must be inviting and interesting but in addition, teaching materials must help students visualize atoms, molecules, molecular structures, and chemical changes. Art is important. Furthermore, color is very much a part of chemistry and our everyday lives. It is used in this text as a learning tool. Color-coded periodic tables (Figures 5.32, 5.33, 5.36 and the periodic table on the inside cover) repeatedly use the same color scheme to encourage students to make connections and thus facilitate learning. Up-to-date four-color photographs and figures are used extensively throughout this text to help students visualize chemistry.

NEW: Zoom-out windows picturing materials at the atomic and molecular level alongside the macroscopic image have been added to help students think more like a chemist, picturing in the mind what is happening at the molecular level. See Figure 8.1 (Reaction of sodium and chlorine), Figure 10.2 (Burning magnesium), Figure 10.22 (Precipitation), Figure 14.3 (Dissolving a salt), and Figure 14.16 (Osmosis).

• Emphasizes learning in small steps. Beginning with Chapter 2, each section of a chapter contains one or more worked-out examples, for a total of over 250 representative worked-out examples. In this edition, each example is followed by two exercises--a simple exercise and a more complex one--for a total of over 500 exercises to be used by the student as self-tests. Solutions to exercises are given in Appendix F. The examples and exercises provide students with a structured method of reviewing major points within a section before proceeding to the next section. Problem-solving strategies or "concept maps" and step-by-step explanations accompany the worked-out examples. They serve as models for working end-of-chapter problems, which are referenced in the margin beside exercises.

NEW: Many of the 250 worked-out Examples are broken down into small steps. Examples in this edition are followed by two Exercises--the (a) Exercise is simple, the (b) Exercise is more complex--with answers in Appendix F. See Examples 9.13 to 9.18, Exercises 9.13 to 9.18, and Examples 11.2 to 11.6 along with the accompanying Exercises 11.2 to 11.6 and related Figures, 11.1 and 11.2.

• Provides matched pairs of problems. Over 1950 end-of-chapter problems in matched pairs provide ample opportunity for "learning by doing"--the method of science. A set of problems arranged by topic and from simple to more complex is followed by a small set of multi-concept challenge problems (suggested by reviewers) and a large set of additional problems. Answers to odd-numbered problems are given in Appendix F. The Student Study Guide and Solutions Manual provides complete worked-out solutions to the odd-numbered problems. The odd-numbered and even-numbered problems make up two sets of problems having equivalent difficulty, so an instructor who does not want students to have access to answers can assign the even-numbered problems. The Instructor's Solutions Manual contains complete solutions to all problems.

NEW: There is a 20 percent increase in end-of-chapter problems for this textbook. The new problems have been distributed throughout. See Chapters 4, 8, 9, 10, and 12.

• Emphasizes the process of science. Problem solving cannot stand alone; it requires an understanding of terms and concepts. Simple problems are often worked incorrectly when fundamental principles are confused. Furthermore, students encounter the "process of science" as they think through the experiments that led to major discoveries and use realistic experimental data to support scientific laws. For example, the text describes experiments that led to the law of conservation of mass and current applications (Chapter 2), Dalton's atomic theory (Chapter 4), discoveries that changed our models of atoms (Chapter 5), and experiments that provide information about chemical bonding (Chapter 8) and gases (Chapter 12). When possible, results of experiments are presented before a law is stated to create a "need to know" learning environment. We intend to demonstrate that the search for answers--in the past, the present, and the future--can be both exciting and challenging.

NEW: Chapter 8, Chemical Bonds, has been significantly updated, with new art to enhance learning. See Table 8.2, Section 8.8, and Figures 8.11, 8.15, and 8.18. Chapter 15, Reaction Rates and Chemical Equilibrium, has been thoroughly rewritten. Additional images have been added along with updated line-art to help students visualize important and difficult equilibrium concepts. See Figures 15.3, 15.4, 15.6, 15.13, 15.14, and 15.15.

• Emphasizes the language of chemistry. Chemical terms and chemical formulas are used to communicate chemistry; they must be understood before problems can be solved. Key terms appear in boldface print in the text where they are defined and are listed at the end of the chapter for review. Chapter 6 provides a thorough treatment of chemical nomenclature. This "stand alone" chapter can be presented earlier, later, or in small sections, at the discretion of the instructor.

NEW: The number of end-of-chapter problems involving chemical formula writing and nomenclature has been expanded to provide more flexibility. Margin notes give Learning Connections with cross-references for key terms defined or discussed previously. See Margin notes in Sections 14.1, 14.2, 14.4, 14.5, and 14.7.

• Provides real-world applications. Numerous special boxes, in-text descriptions, and margin notes present applications, real-world connections, word-picture illustrations, and points of historical emphasis for virtually every principle that is discussed. These materials help students understand that chemistry is a part of everyday life. Moreover, learning is made easier when new knowledge is connected and related to familiar points.

NEW: Some margin notes and many figures in the previous edition were replaced by eye-catching, up-to-date images that show chemistry applications. See Figures 7.15, 10.1, 10.10, 15.6, 16.1, 17.1, 17.2, 19.6, 20.2 20.21 and the boxes, Sunscreens, in Section 5.2, Oxygen, in Section 17.2, Octane Ratings, in Section 19.4, and others.

• Emphasizes the fundamentals. Special attention is given to providing clear and simple descriptions of topics that often confuse beginning students. Examples include (1) setting up and using conversion factors in solving problems, (2) developing a plan or "concept map" when solving problems, (3) using an appropriate number of significant digits in answers, (4) writing chemical formulas and chemical equations correctly, and (5) using the periodic table as a tool in predicting properties and reactions of chemicals.

NEW: See new art used to enhance learning of concepts: Figures 3.5, 3.1 3.18,4.27,5.23,8.11,11.1,11.4, and 11.5.

• Helps students evaluate learning. A self-evaluation feature called "Asses Your Understanding: A Self-Check Review" precedes the list of key terms and end of-chapter problems. This feature consists of a short list--keyed to chapter sections--outlining what a student should be able to do to demonstrate thorough understanding of the major points within the chapter. In-chapter examples and exercises for each section as well as the end-of-chapter problems mentioned earlier also serve as self-checks.

NEW: To provide more in-chapter self-checks, Examples are now followed by two Exercises--the (a) Exercise that is simple and the (b) Exercise that is more complex.

Supplements

For the Student

Study Guide and Solutions Manual (0-13-033779-X) by Julie Frentrup of Eastern Michigan State University and Suzanne Saum of Lindenwood College provide students with worked-out solutions to all the in-text exercises as well as the odd-numbered end-of-chapter problems. The Study Guide portion contains a chapter-by-chapter overview with practice problems applied to each major concept in the text, followed by two or three self-tests with answers at the end of each chapter.

Fundamentals of Chemistry in the Laboratory, Third Edition (0-13-033726-9) is the author's own laboratory manual designed specifically to accompany this textbook.

Math Review Toolkit (0-13-033734-X) by Gary L. Long of Virginia Polytechnic: Institute. This brief paperback is engineered for students who find math a significant challenge in this course. The book provides a review of the mathematics used throughout the text, a guide to preparing for a career in chemistry, and a review of some of the special writing requirements often needed in the introductory chemistry course.

Companion Website for Fundamentals of Chemistry, Fourth Edition. This innovative on-line resource center is designed specifically to support and enhance the Burns text. The Website features the following: Explorer and Master Quizzes--multiple choice quizzes that are automatically graded to give students instant feedback on their responses, and can be submitted to an instructor; Web Exploration links maintained by Prentice Hall that point both students and instructors to additional resources and activities on the Internet for each chapter; and an interactive Math Tutorial that echoes the Math Review Toolkit.

Introductory Chemistry Media Companion (0-13-033729-3) This student CD is divided into topics that echo the coverage in an introductory chemistry course. Each topic includes video clips, animations, rotatable molecular models, and interactive simulations that allow students to visit the material in the textbook in a highly visual, responsive way. Self-assessment questions on each topic give the students additional drill to check that they understand the concepts. The CD is packaged in a booklet that helps students find Internet resources appropriate for chemistry.

For the Instructor

Instructor's Solutions Manual (0-13-033724-2) by Suzanne Saum of Lindenwood College provides worked-out solutions to all in-chapter and end-of-chapter questions and problems.

Test Item File (0-13-033710-2) by Julie Frentrup of Eastern Michigan State University has been revised to reflect the revision in this text book and contains 10% new questions in a bank of over 1500 multiple choice questions.

TestGen-EQ (0-13-033722-6) The computerized version of the Test Item File is available on a dual-platform CD-ROM. The software available with this database allows you to create and tailor exams to your specific needs.

Transparency Set (0-13-033725-0) Over 120 full-color transparencies chosen from the text put principles into visual perspective and save you time while you are preparing your lectures.

MediaPortfolio (0-13-033728-5) An instructor CD-ROM that contains almost all of the art from the text. Using the included MediaPortfolio software, instructors can browse for figures and other media elements by thumbnail and description as well as search by key word or title. This CD also contains a pre-built PowerPoint Presentation by Joe A. Wilson of Olney Central College.

Instructor's Manual to accompany Fundamentals of Chemistry in the Laboratory, Third Edition (0-13-033727-7).

Customer Reviews

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

See All Customer Reviews