Fundamentals of Engineering Electromagnetics

Fundamentals of Engineering Electromagnetics

by Sunil Bhooshan

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Overview



Beginning with the very basics such as scalars and vectors, coordinate systems, and vector calculus, the book aims to teach the subject starting from the fundamentals in a simple and direct manner. After the introductory part, the content is divided into three logical parts, namely, electrostatics, magnetostatics, and time varying fields, radiation and propagation. The text has been supported throughout with self-explanatory illustrations and numerous graded solved examples. Many of the illustrations also provide a three-dimensional view of the patterns presented.

With an aim to provide sufficient practice to students and reinforce important concepts, the end chapter exercises include review questions, numerical problems with answers, short answers questions with answers, MCQs with answers and open book exam questions as well with hints. The appendices at the end of the book equip the students with all the important tables and information they would require for this course.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780198077947
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date: 09/03/2012
Pages: 688
Product dimensions: 6.20(w) x 9.40(h) x 1.10(d)

About the Author




Sunil Bhooshan is currently Professor and Head of Department in Jaypee University of Information Technology (JUIT) at Waknaghat near Shimla which is a part of the group of educational institutions of the Jaypee group of industries. The author graduated from IIT Delhi, and completed his MS and Ph D degrees from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.

Dr Bhooshan has a balanced background of industry and academics. He has worked in Hewlett Packard (now Agilent Technologies) at Santa Rosa, USA, as a Member of Technical Staff. He taught briefly at IIT Kanpur and was a consultant to various companies in India where he helped develop parabolic dish antennas and other microwave components. He has more than fifty research papers published in reputed journals and presented in international conferences. He is a member of IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) and WSEAS (World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society) societies.

Table of Contents



Frequently Used Reference Material
0.1. Table of Fundamental Constants
0.2. Units
0.3. The Greek Alphabet
0.4. SI Prefixes
0.5. Dielectric Constants of Materials
0.6. Relative Permeabilities of Materials
I. Introductory Material
1. Scalars and Vectors
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Scalars
1.2.1. Rules to Manipulate Scalars
1.2.2. Keeping Track of Calculations
1.2.3. Order of Magnitude of Calculations
1.2.4. Approximations
1.3. Vectors
1.3.1. The Unit Vector
1.3.2. Vector Addition
1.3.2.1. A Handy Technique
1.3.2.2. Calculations with Vector Addition
1.3.3. Dot Product or Scalar Product
1.3.3.1. Work and Scalar Product
1.3.3.2. Scalar Products of Orthogonal Unit Vectors
1.3.4. Cross Product or Vector Product
1.3.4.1. Cross Products of Orthogonal Unit Vectors
1.3.4.2. Cross Product in Rectangular Coordinates
1.3.4.3. Memorizing Cross-Product Calculations
1.3.4.4. Scalar Triple Product
1.4. Units and Dimensions
1.5. Points to Remember
1.6. Practice Problems and Self Assessment
2. Coordinate Systems and Fields
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Scalar and Vector Fields
2.2.1. Scalar Fields
2.2.2. Vector Fields
2.3. The Rectangular Coordinate System
2.3.1. Distance Between Two Points
2.3.2. Direction Cosines
2.3.3. Vector Equation of a Straight Line
2.3.4. Equation of a Plane
2.4. Cylindrical Coordinate System
2.4.1. Equations of Surfaces and Lines in Cylindrical Coordinates
2.5. The Spherical Coordinate System
2.6. Points to Remember
2.7. Practice Problems and Self Assessment
3. Vector Calculus 143
3.1. Chapter Goals
3.2. Basic 3-Dimensional Calculus
3.2.1. Differential Element of a Line
3.2.2. Line Integral
3.2.3. Differential Element of a Surface
3.2.4. Surface Integral
3.2.5. The Volume Integral
3.3. Differential Calculus Concepts
3.3.1. The Del or Nabla Operator
3.3.2. Gradient
3.3.3. The Curl
3.3.4. Divergence
3.4. Maxwell's Equations
3.5. Units and Dimensions of EM Fields
3.6. List of Formulae
3.7. Practice Problems and Self Assessment
II. Electrostatics
4. The Electric Field and Gauss's Law
4.1. Chapter Goals
4.2. Electrostatics: An Introduction
4.3. Charge
4.3.1. The Dirac Delta Function
4.4. Coulomb's Law and the Electric Field
4.5. The Electric Field due to a System of Point Charges
4.5.1. Electric Dipole
4.5.2. Electric Field Due to Any Number of Point Charges
4.6. Electric Field due to Continuous Charge Distributions
4.6.1. Infinite Line Charge
4.6.2. Infinite Sheet Charge
4.7. Electric Displacement ? and Flux Density D
4.8. Gauss's Law
4.9. Gauss's LawApplied to Cases of Spherical Symmetry
4.9.1. Gauss's Law Applied to a Point Charge
4.9.2. Gauss's Law Applied to a Charged Sphere
4.10. Gauss's Law Applied to Cases of Cylindrical Symmetry
4.11. Gauss's LawApplied to Cases of Rectangular Symmetry
4.12. List of Formulae
4.13. Practice problems and Self Assessment
5. Energy and Potential
5.1. Chapter Goals
5.2. Potential Due to a Point Charge
5.3. Equipotential Surfaces
5.4. Potential Energy
5.5. Potential Due to a System of Point Charges
5.5.1. Far Fields for an Electric Dipole
5.6. Potential Due Any Continuous Charge Distribution
5.7. List of Formulae
5.8. Practice Problems and Self Assessment
6. The Electric Field and Material Media
6.1. Chapter Goals
6.2. Current and Current Density
6.3. Continuity Equation
6.4. Conductors, Semiconductors and Dielectrics
6.4.1. Conductors and Resistance
6.4.2. Relaxation Time for Conductors
6.4.3. The Method of Images
6.4.4. Semiconductors
6.4.5. Dielectrics
6.5. Capacitance
6.5.1. Parallel Plate Capacitor
6.5.2. Coaxial Line
6.5.3. Two Conductor Line
6.6. Relation Between Capacitance and Resistance
6.7. Boundary Conditions for Electrostatic Fields
6.8. Energy Stored in the Electric Field
6.9. List of Formulae
6.10. Practice Problems and Self Assessment
7. Laplace's and Poisson's Equations
7.1. Chapter Goals
7.2. Introduction
7.3. Uniqueness Theorem
7.4. Laplace's Equation
7.4.1. Some One Dimensional Solutions
7.4.1.1. Laplace's Equation, Applied to Infinite Parallel Planes
7.4.1.2. Laplace'sEquation,AppliedtoConcentric Cylinders
7.4.1.3. Laplace'sEquation,AppliedtoConcentric Spheres
7.4.1.4. Laplace'sEquationAppliedtoTwo Coaxial Cones
7.4.2. TwoDimensional Solutions toLaplace'sEquation
7.4.2.1. Analytic Functions
7.4.3. Separation of Variables
7.4.4. Numerical Techniques
7.5. Poisson's Equation
7.5.1. One Dimensional Solutions
7.6. List of Formulae
7.7. Practice Problems and Self Assessment
III. Magnetostatics
8. The Steady Magnetic Field
8.1. Chapter Goals
8.2. Introduction
8.3. The Biot-Savart Law
8.3.1. Biot-Savart Law Applied to a Tiny Filamentary Current
8.4. Types of Current
8.4.1. Biot-SavartLawAppliedto an InfinitelyLong Straight Wire
8.4.2. Magnetic Field Lines of a Long Straight Wire
8.4.3. Biot-Savart Law Applied to a Short Straight Wire
8.5. Ampere's Law
8.5.1. Ampere's Law Applied to a Long Straight Wire
8.5.2. Ampere's Law Applied to a Wire of Radius a
8.5.3. Ampere's Law Applied to an Infinite Solenoid
8.5.4. Ampere's Law Applied to a Winding Around a Torus
8.6. The Magnetic Field-Some Calculations
8.6.1. Loop of Wire Carrying a Current
8.6.2. Magnetic Field Due to a Current Sheet
8.6.3. Magnetic Field in the Interior of an Infinite Solenoid
8.6.4. Magnetic Field in the Interior of a Finite Solenoid
8.6.5. Magnetic Field on the Axis of a Rotating Charged Disk
8.7. The Magnetic Scalar Potential
8.7.1. Scalar Potential in the Interior of an Infinite Solenoid
8.8. The Vector Potential and the Magnetic Flux Density
8.8.1. Calculation of the Vector Potential
8.8.2. Vector Potential of a Circular Loop
8.9. The Biot-Savart Law-Revisited
8.10. Various Results
8.10.1. VectorPoential for aCurrentCarrying Straight Conductor
8.10.2. Two Current Carrying Straight Conductors
8.11. Far Field Approximation
8.11.1. Square Current Loop and Magnetic Dipole
8.12. List of Formulae
8.13. Practice Problems and Self Assessment
9. Magnetic Forces, Inductance and Magnetisation
9.1. Chapter Goals
9.2. The Lorentz Force
9.3. Electron Moving in a Steady Magnetic Field
9.4. A Straight Wire Carrying a Current in a Magnetic Field
9.5. Other Formulations
9.6. Loop Carrying a Current in a Constant Magnetic Field
9.7. Torque on Loop Carrying a Current in a Constant Magnetic Field
9.7.1. The Magnetic Dipole and Torque on an Arbitrary Loop
9.8. Force between Two Current Elements
9.9. Inductance
9.9.1. Inductance of a Coil
9.9.2. Inductance of a Coaxial Line
9.9.3. Magnetic Energy
9.9.4. Inductance of a Circular Loop
9.9.5. Mutual inductance
9.10. Magnetic Materials and Magnetic Circuits
9.10.1. Magnetisation
9.10.2. Magnetic Circuits
IV. Time Varying Fields, Radiation and Propagation
10.Time Dependant Fields
10.1. Chapter Goals
10.2. List of Formulae
10.3. Faraday's Law
10.4. A Maxwell Equation from Faraday's Law
10.5. The Displacement Current Density
10.6. Time-DependentMaxwell's Equations
10.6.1. Point form of the Equations
10.7. Integral Form of Maxwell's Equations
10.8. The FundamentalEquations ofRadiation and Propagation
10.9. Time Domain Wave Equation
10.10.Frequency Domain Wave Equation
10.10.1.Phasors
10.11.The Wave Equation
10.12.Chapter Summary
10.13.Short Answer Questions
10.14.Problems
11.Electromagnetic Waves
11.1. Uniform Plane Wave
11.2. Wave Polarisation
11.2.1. Circular Polarisation
11.2.2. Elliptical Polarisation
11.3. Wave Propagation in Conducting Media
11.3.1. Low Conductivity Materials
11.3.2. High Conductivity Materials
11.4. Boundary Conditions
11.5. Reflection and Refraction of Waves
11.5.1. Reflection from a Metal Surface
11.5.1.1. Normal Incidence
11.5.2. Refraction from a Dielectric Surface
11.6. Poynting Vector and the Flow of Power
11.6.1. Poynting's Theorem
11.6.2. Poynting Vector
12.Transmission Lines
12.1. Time Domain Equation
12.2. Frequency Domain Equation
12.3. Solutions to the Transmission Line Equation
12.3.1. Power Considerations
12.3.2. Reflections from Discontinuities
12.3.3. StandingWave Ratio
12.3.4. Input Impedance Anywhere Along the Line
12.4. Transmission Line Charts
12.5. Transformer Matching
12.6. References
13.Waveguides
13.1. The Parallel Plate Waveguide
13.2. TEM mode Waveguides
13.3. The RectangularWaveguide
13.4. The CircularWaveguide
14.Radiation from Currents
14.1. Wave Equation due to Charges and Currents
14.2. Radiation from a Current Element
14.3. The Half-Wave Dipole Antenna
14.4. Basic Antenna Concepts
14.5. Directivity
14.5.1. Directivity from the Beam Pattern
14.6. Effective Aperture and Friis' Transmission Formula
15. Introduction to Antennas
15.1. Chapter Goals
15.2. Introduction
15.3. Linear Antenna Arrays
15.4. Linear Array with Equal Currents
15.4.1. The Array Factor
15.4.2. Nulls and Sidelobes
15.4.3. Beam Pointing Angle
15.5. Farfield Pattern
15.6. Aperture Antennas
15.7. Horn Antennas
15.7.1. Introduction
15.8. Parabolic Reflector
15.9. List of Formulae
15.10.Practice Problems and Self Assessment
16.Radio Wave Propagation
16.1. Introduction
16.2. Ground Wave Propagation
16.3. Earth Reflection
16.4. The Surface Wave
16.4.1. The Surface Wave for the Vertical Dipole
16.4.2. Wave Tilt of the Surface Wave
16.5. Surface Wave for a Horizontal Dipole
16.6. pproximations for Ground Wave Propagation
16.7. Tropospheric Propagation
16.7.1. Spherical Earth Considerations
16.7.2. Tropospheric Waves
16.8. Ionospheric Propagation
16.8.1. The Ionosphere
16.8.1.1. Plasma Oscillations
16.8.1.2. Wave Propagation in a Plasma
A. List of Symbols
A.1. Commonly Use Symbols and Nomenclature
B. Coordinate Systems
B.1. Rectangular to Cylindrical, Cylindrical to Rectangular
B.2. Rectangular to Spherical, Spherical to Rectangular
B.3. Spherical and Cylindrical Coordinates
B.4. Grad, Div, Curl and Laplacian in Different Coordinate Systems
B.4.1. Cartesian Coordinate
B.4.2. Cylindrical Coordinates
B.4.3. Spherical Coordinates
C. Mathematical Reference
C.1. General
C.1.1. Important Constants
C.1.2. Taylor's Series Expansion
C.1.3. C.2. Vector Identitiesdinate Systems
C.2.1. General
C.2.2. Gradient
C.2.3. Curl
C.2.4. Divergence
C.2.5. Double
C.3. Complex Variables
C.3.1. General
C.3.2. Inequalities
C.3.3. Complex conjugates
C.3.4. Euler's Identity
C.4. Trigonometry
C.4.1. Basic formulae
C.4.2. Sum and difference formulae
C.4.3. Double angle formulae
C.4.4. Half angle formulae
C.4.5. Product to sum formulae
C.4.6. Sum and difference to product
C.4.7. Triangle Formulae
C.4.8. Powers of the trigonometric functions
C.5. Differentiation
C.5.1. Rules
C.5.2. Differentiation of Functions
C.6. Integration
C.6.1. Common Substitutions
C.6.2. Indefinite Integrals
Bibliography

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