Fundamentals of Environmental Sampling and Analysis / Edition 1

Fundamentals of Environmental Sampling and Analysis / Edition 1

by Chunlong Zhang
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Fundamentals of Environmental Sampling and Analysis / Edition 1

An integrated approach to understanding the principles ofsampling, chemical analysis, and instrumentation

This unique reference focuses on the overall framework and whyvarious methodologies are used in environmental sampling andanalysis. An understanding of the underlying theories andprinciples empowers environmental professionals to select and adaptthe proper sampling and analytical protocols for specificcontaminants as well as for specific project applications. Coveringboth field sampling and laboratory analysis, Fundamentals ofEnvironmental Sampling and Analysis includes:

  • A review of the basic analytical and organic chemistry,statistics, hydrogeology, and environmental regulations relevant tosampling and analysis
  • An overview of the fundamentals of environmental samplingdesign, sampling techniques, and quality assurance/quality control(QA/QC) essential to acquire quality environmental data
  • A detailed discussion of: the theories of absorptionspectroscopy for qualitative and quantitative environmentalanalysis; metal analysis using various atomic absorption andemission spectrometric methods; and the instrumental principles ofcommon chromatographic and electrochemical methods
  • An introduction to advanced analytical techniques, includingvarious hyphenated mass spectrometries and nuclear magneticresonance spectroscopy

With real-life case studies that illustrate the principles plusproblems and questions at the end of each chapter to solidifyunderstanding, this is a practical, hands-on reference forpractitioners and a great textbook for upper-level undergraduatesand graduate students in environmental science and engineering.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780471710974
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 03/23/2007
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 456
Sales rank: 578,734
Product dimensions: 6.50(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

Chunlong (Carl) Zhang, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Environmental Science and Environmental Chemistry at the University of Houston-Clear Lake. He has over two decades of experience in academia, industry, and consulting. Dr. Zhang has firsthand, practical knowledge of environmental sampling and analysis from work in the field and in the lab. He is the author or coauthor of numerous articles and reports on contaminant fate/transport, environmental remediation, and environmental assessment.

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Table of Contents


1. Introduction to Environmental Data Acquisition.

1.1 Introduction.

1.1.1 Importance of Scientifically Reliable and LegallyDefensible Data.

1.1.2 Sampling Error vs. Analytical Error During DataAcquisition.

1.2 Environmental Sampling.

1.2.1 Scope of Environmental Sampling.

1.2.2 Where, When, What, How, and How Many.

1.3 Environmental Analysis.

1.3.1 Uniqueness of Modern Environmental Analysis.

1.3.2 Classical and Modern Analytical and MonitoringTechniques.


Questions and Problems.

2. Basics of Environmental Sampling and Analysis.

2.1 Essential Analytical and Organic Chemistry.

2.1.1 Concentration Units.

2.1.2 Common Organic Pollutants and Their Properties.

2.1.3 Analytical Precision, Accuracy, and Recovery.

2.1.4 Detection Limit and Quantitation Limit.

2.1.5 Standard Calibration Curve.

2.2 Essential Environmental Statistics.

2.2.1 Measurements of Central Tendency and Dispersion.

2.2.2 Understanding Probability Distributions.

2.2.3 Type I and II Errors: False Positive and FalseNegative.

2.2.4 Detection of Outliers.

2.2.5 Analysis of Censored Data.

2.2.6 Analysis of Spatial and Time Series Data.

2.3 Essential Hydrology and Geology.

2.3.1 Stream Water Flow and Measurement.

2.3.2 Groundwater Flow in Aquifers.

2.3.3 Groundwater Wells.

2.4 Essential Knowledge of Environmental Regulations.

2.4.1 Major Regulations Administrated by the U.S. EPA.

2.4.2 Other Important Environmental Regulations.


Questions and Problems.

3. Environmental Sampling Design.

3.1 Planning and Sampling Protocols.

3.1.1 Data Quality Objectives.

3.1.2 Basic Considerations of Sampling Plan.

3.2 Sampling Environmental Population.

3.2.1 Where (Space) and When (Time) to Sample.

3.2.2 Obtain Representative Samples from Various Matrices.

3.3 Environmental Sampling Approaches: Where and When.

3.3.1 Judgmental Sampling.

3.3.2 Simple Random Sampling.

3.3.3 Stratified Random Sampling.

3.3.4 Systematic Sampling.

3.3.5 Other Sampling Designs.

3.4 Estimating Sample Numbers: How Many Samples areRequired.


Questions and Problems.

4. Environmental Sampling Techniques.

4.1 General Guidelines of Environmental Sampling Techniques.

4.1.1 Sequence of Sampling Matrices and Analytes.

4.1.2 Sample Amount.

4.1.3 Sample Preservation and Storage.

4.1.4 Selection of Sample Containers.

4.1.5 Selection of Sampling Equipment.

4.2 Techniques for Sampling Various Media: Practical Approachesand Tips.

4.2.1 Surface Water and Wastewater Sampling.

4.2.2 Groundwater Sampling.

4.2.3 Soil and Sediment Sampling.

4.2.4 Hazardous Waste Sampling.

4.2.5 Biological Sampling.

4.2.6 Air and Stack Emission Sampling.


Questions and Problems.

5. Methodology and Quality Assurance/Quality Control ofEnvironmental Analysis.

5.1 Overview on Standard Methodologies.

5.1.1 The U.S. EPA Methods for Air, Water, Wastewater, andHazardous Waste.

5.1.2 Other Applicable Methods:APHA/ASTM/OSHA/NIOSH/USGS/AOAC.

5.2 Selection of Standard Methods.

5.2.1 Methods for Sample Preparation.

5.2.2 Methods for Physical, Biological, and General ChemicalParameters.

5.2.3 Methods for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs).

5.2.4 Methods for Semivolatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs).

5.2.5 Methods for Other Pollutants and Compounds of EmergingEnvironmental Concerns.

5.3 Field Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC).

5.3.1 Types of Field QA/QC Samples.

5.3.2 Numbers of Field QA/QC Samples.

5.4 Analytical Quality Assurance/Quality Control.

5.4.1 Quality Control Procedures for Sample Preparation.

5.4.2 Quality Control Procedures During Analysis.


Questions and Problems.

6. Common Operations and Wet Chemical Methods inEnvironmental Laboratories.

6.1 Basic Operations in Environmental Laboratories.

6.1.1 Labware Cleaning Protocols for Trace Analysis.

6.1.2 Chemical Reagent Purity, Standard, and ReferenceMaterials.

6.1.3 Volumetric Glassware and Calibration.

6.1.4 Laboratory Health, Safety, and Emergency First Aid.

6.1.5 Waste Handling and Disposal.

6.2 Wet Chemical Methods and Common Techniques in EnvironmentalAnalysis.

6.2.1 Gravimetric and Volumetric Wet Chemical Methods.

6.2.2 Common Laboratory Techniques.

6.3 Analytical Principles for Common Wet Chemical Methods.

6.3.1 Moisture in Solid and Biological Samples.

6.3.2 Solids in Water, Wastewater, and Sludge (TS, TSS, TDS,VS).

6.3.3 Acidity, Alkalinity, and Hardness of Waters.

6.3.4 Oxygen Demand in Water and Wastewater (DO, BOD andCOD).

6.3.5 Oil and Grease in Water and Wastewater.

6.3.6 Residual Chlorine and Chloride in Drinking Water.

6.3.7 Ammonia in Wastewater.

6.3.8 Cyanide in Water, Wastewater and Soil Extract.

6.3.9 Sulfide in Water and Waste.


Questions and Problems.

7. Fundamentals of Sample Preparation for EnvironmentalAnalysis.

7.1 Overview on Sample Preparation.

7.1.1 Purpose of Sample Preparation.

7.1.2 Types of Sample Preparation.

7.2 Sample Preparation for Metal Analysis.

7.2.1 Various Forms of Metals and Preparation Methods.

7.2.2 Principles of Acid Digestion and Selection of Acid.

7.2.3 Alkaline Digestion and Other Extraction Methods.

7.3 Extraction for SVOC and Non-VOC from Liquid or SolidSamples.

7.3.1 Separatory Funnel and Continuous Liquid–LiquidExtraction (LLE).

7.3.2 Solid Phase Extraction.

7.3.3 Solid Phase Microextraction.

7.3.4 Soxhlet and Automatic Soxhlet Extraction (Soxtec).

7.3.5 Ultrasonic Extraction.

7.3.6 Pressured Fluid Extraction.

7.3.7 Supercritical Fluid Extraction.

7.3.8 Comparison and Selection of Organic ExtractionMethods.

7.4 Post-Extraction Clean-up of Organic Compounds.

7.4.1 Theories and Operation Principles of Various Clean-upMethods.

7.4.2 Recommended Clean-up Method for Selected Compounds.

7.5 Derivatization of Non-VOC for Gas Phase Analysis.

7.6 Sample Preparation for VOC, Air and Stack Gas Emission.

7.6.1 Dynamic Headspace Extraction (Purge-and-Trap).

7.6.2 Static Headspace Extraction.

7.6.3 Azeotropic and Vacuum Distillation.

7.6.4 Volatile Organic Sampling Train.


Questions and Problems.

8. UV-Visible and Infrared Spectroscopic Methods inEnvironmental Analysis.

8.1 Introduction to the Principles of Spectroscopy.

8.1.1 Understanding the Interactions of Various Radiations withMatter.

8.1.2 Origins of Absorption in Relation to Molecular OrbitalTheories.

8.1.3 Molecular Structure and UV-Visible/Infrared Spectra.

8.1.4 Quantitative Analysis with Beer-Lambert’s Law.

8.2 UV-Visible Spectroscopy.

8.2.1 UV-Visible Instrumentation.

8.2.2 UV-VIS as a Workhorse in Environmental Analysis.

8.3 Infrared Spectroscopy.

8.3.1 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometers (FTIR).

8.3.2 Dispersive Infrared Instruments (DIR).

8.3.3 Nondispersive Infrared Instruments (NDIR).

8.3.4 Applications in Industrial Hygiene and Air PollutionMonitoring.

8.4 Practical Aspects of UV-Visible and InfraredSpectrometry.

8.4.1 Common Tips for UV-Visible Spectroscopic Analysis.

8.4.2 Sample Preparation for Infrared SpectroscopicAnalysis.


Questions and Problems.

9. Atomic Spectroscopy for Metal Analysis.

9.1 Introduction to the Principles of Atomic Spectroscopy.

9.1.1 Flame and Flameless Atomic Absorption.

9.1.2 Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission.

9.1.3 Atomic X-ray Fluorescence.

9.2 Instruments for Atomic Spectroscopy.

9.2.1 Flame and Flameless Atomic Absorption.

9.2.2 Cold Vapor and Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption.

9.2.3 Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission.

9.2.4 Atomic X-ray Fluorescence.

9.3 Selection of the Proper Atomic Spectroscopic Techniques.

9.3.1 Comparison of Detection Limits and Working Range.

9.3.2 Comparison of Interferences and Other Considerations.

9.4 Practical Tips to Sampling, Sample Preparation, and MetalAnalysis.


Questions and Problems.

10. Chromatographic Methods for EnvironmentalAnalysis.

10.1 Introduction to Chromatography.

10.1.1 Types of Chromatography and Separation Columns.

10.1.2 Common Stationary Phases: The Key to Separation.

10.1.3 Other Parameters Important to Compound Separation.

10.1.4 Terms and Theories of Chromatogram.

10.1.5 Use of Chromatograms for Qualitative and QuantitativeAnalysis.

10.2 Instruments of Chromatographic Methods.

10.2.1 Gas Chromatography.

10.2.2 High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).

10.2.3 Ion Chromatography.

10.2.4 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography.

10.3 Common Detectors for Chromatography.

10.3.1 Detectors for Gas Chromatography.

10.3.2 Detectors for High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

10.3.3 Detectors for Ion Chromatography.

10.4 Applications of Chromatographic Methods in EnvironmentalAnalysis.

10.4.1 Gases, Volatile, and Semivolatile Organics with GC.

10.4.2 Semivolatile and Nonvolatile Organics with HPLC.

10.4.3 Ionic Species with IC.

10.5 Practical Tips to Chromatographic Methods.

10.5.1 What Can and Cannot be Done with GC and HPLC.

10.5.2 Development for GC and HPLC Methods.

10.5.3 Overview on Maintenance and Troubleshooting.


Questions and Problems.

11. Electrochemical Methods for EnvironmentalAnalysis.

11.1 Introduction to Electrochemical Theories.

11.1.1 Review of Redox Chemistry and Electrochemical Cells.

11.1.2 General Principles of Electroanalytical Methods.

11.1.3 Types of Electrodes and Notations for ElectrochemicalCells.

11.2 Potentiometric Applications in Environmental Analysis.

11.2.1 Measurement of pH.

11.2.2 Measurement of Ions by Ion Selective Electrodes(ISEs).

11.2.3 Potentiometric Titration (Indirect Potentiometry).

11.3 Voltammetric Applications in Environmental Analysis.

11.3.1 Measurement of Dissolved Oxygen.

11.3.2 Measurement of Anions by Amperometric Titration.

11.3.3 Measurement of Metals by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry(ASV).


Questions and Problems.

12. Other Instrumental Methods in EnvironmentalAnalysis.

12.1 Hyphenated Mass Spectrometric Methods and Applications.

12.1.1 Atomic Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS).

12.1.2 Molecular Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS and LC-MS).

12.1.3 Mass Spectrometric Applications in EnvironmentalAnalysis.

12.2 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR).

12.2.1 NMR Spectrometers and the Origin of NMR Signals.

12.2.2 Molecular Structures and NMR Spectra.

12.2.3 Applications of NMR in Environmental Analysis.

12.3 Miscellaneous Methods.

12.3.1 Radiochemical Analysis.

12.3.2 Surface and Interface Analysis.

12.3.3 Screening Methods Using Immunoassay.


Questions and Problems.


Experiment 1. Data Analysis and Statistical Treatment: A CaseStudy on Ozone Concentrations in Cities of Houston-GalvestonArea.

Experiment 2. Collection and Preservation of Surface Water andSediment Samples and Field Measurement of Several Water QualityParameters.

Experiment 3. Gravimetric Analysis of Solids and TitrimetricMeasurement of Alkalinity of Streams and Lakes.

Experiment 4. Determination of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) byTitrimetric Winkler Method.

Experiment 5. Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) inWater and Wastewater.

Experiment 6. Determination of Nitrate and Nitrite in Water byUV-Visible Spectrometry.

Experiment 7. Determination of Anionic Surfactant (Detergent) byLiquid-Liquid Extraction Followed by Colorimetric Methods.

Experiment 8. Determination of Hexavalent and Trivalent Chromium(Cr6+ and Cr3+) in Water by VisibleSpectrometry.

Experiment 9. Determination of Greenhouse Gases by FourierTransform Infrared Spectrometer.

Experiment 10. Determination of Metals in Soil–AcidDigestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma–Optical EmissionSpectroscopy (ICP-OES).

Experiment 11. Determination of Explosives Compounds in aContaminated Soil by High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC).

Experiment 12. Measurement of Headspace Chloroethylene by GasChromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID).

Experiment 13. Determination of Chloroethylene by GasChromatography with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD).

Experiment 14. Use of Ion Selective Electrode to Determine TraceLevel of Fluoride in Drinking and Natural Water.

Experiment 15. Identification of BTEX and ChlorobenzeneCompounds by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry(GC–MS).


A. Common Abbreviations and Acronyms.

B. Structures and Properties of Important OrganicPollutants.

C1. Standard Normal Cumulative Probabilities.

C2. Percentiles of t-Distribution.

C3. Critical Values for the F-Distribution.

D. Required Containers, Preservation Techniques, and HoldingTimes.


What People are Saying About This

From the Publisher

"This book gives an excellent contribution to the understanding of the fundamentals of environmental sampling and analysis including. The book is a unique reference for a large audience from students to environmental scientists at different stage of their work. The book is a valuable guide and reference tool and should appeal to a wide ranging audience including students, academics and environmental professionals" (Environment International, 2008)

"As a particular feature, it includes questions and exercise problems in each chapter to help to understand these concepts." (International Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry, December 2007)

"The author writes in the first person plural which gives the book a rather chatty style that works reasonably well. References to real-life case studies also helps put the material in context and some chapters have a 'practical tips' section which is a useful feature" (Chemistry World, September 2007)

"An excellent book that I am sure will be adopted by many faculty members." (Journal of Hazardous Materials, August 17, 2007)

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