ISBN-10:
0121797252
ISBN-13:
9780121797256
Pub. Date:
05/28/1996
Publisher:
Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Fundamentals of Soil Ecology / Edition 1

Fundamentals of Soil Ecology / Edition 1

by David C. Coleman

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780121797256
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Publication date: 05/28/1996
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 205
Product dimensions: 6.23(w) x 9.26(h) x 0.61(d)

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Editionxi
Preface to the First Editionxiii
1Historical Overview of Soils and the Fitness of the Soil Environment1
The Historical Background of Soil Ecology1
Water as a Constituent of Soil4
Elemental Constitution of Soil9
How Soils Are Formed9
Profile Development11
Soil Texture13
Clay Mineral Structure15
Soil Structure16
Soils as Suppliers of Ecosystem Services20
Summary20
2Primary Production Processes in Soils: Roots and Rhizosphere Associates23
Introduction23
The Primary Production Process23
Methods of Sampling25
Destructive Techniques25
The Harvest Method25
Isotope-Dilution Method28
Root-Ingrowth Technique28
Nondestructive Techniques30
Additional Sources of Primary Production34
Symbiotic Associates of Roots34
Mycorrhizal Structure and Function36
Ecosystem-Level Consequences of ECM Function37
Actinorhiza38
Carbon Allocation in the Root/Rhizosphere38
Carbon Allocation Costs of Development and Maintenance of Symbiotic Associations with Roots42
Future Directions for Research on Roots and Mycorrhizal Function and Biodiversity44
Summary46
3Secondary Production: Activities of Heterotrophic Organisms--Microbes47
Introduction47
Compounds Being Decomposed48
Microbial Activities in Relation to Catabolism in Soil Systems48
Microbial Abundance and Distribution in Soil53
Techniques for Measuring Microbial Communities57
Direct Measures of Numbers and Biomass57
Indirect Measures of Biomass59
Chemical Methods59
The Chloroform Fumigation and Incubation (CFI) Technique59
The Chloroform Fumigation and Extraction (CFE) Technique60
Physiological Methods: SIR Technique61
Additional Physiological Methods of Measuring Microbial Activity61
Enzyme Assays and Measures of Biological Activities in Soils63
Direct Methods of Determining Soil Microbial Activity66
Soil Sterilization and Partial Sterilization Techniques67
Conceptual Models of Microbes in Soil Systems67
Root-Rhizosphere Microbe Models and Experiments67
Soil Aggregation Models69
Models: Organism and Process-Oriented74
Summary77
4Secondary Production: Activities of Heterotrophic Organisms--The Soil Fauna79
Introduction79
The Microfauna83
Methods for Extracting and Counting Protozoa86
Distribution of Protozoa in Soil Profiles87
Impacts of Protozoa on Ecosystem Function87
The Mesofauna89
Rotifera89
Features of Body Plan and General Ecology89
Nematoda90
Nematode Feeding Habits90
Nematode Zones of Activity in Soil93
Nematode Extraction Techniques94
Tardigrada95
Microarthropods98
Collembola101
Families of Collembola103
Population Growth and Reproduction107
Collembolan Feeding Habits107
Collembolan Impacts on Soil Ecosystems108
Acari (Mites)109
Oribatid Mites111
Abundance and Diversity of Oribatid Mites114
Population Growth116
Oribatid Feeding Habits116
Oribatid Impacts on Soil Ecosystems119
Prostigmatic Mites119
Mesostigmatic Mites122
Astigmatic Mites124
Other Microarthropods128
Protura128
Diplura129
Microcoryphia130
Pseudoscorpionida130
Symphyla131
Pauropoda133
Enchytraeidae133
The Macrofauna141
Macroarthropods141
Importance of the Macroarthropods141
Isopoda143
Diplopoda145
Chilopoda146
Scorpionida147
Araneae149
Opiliones151
Solifugae152
Uropygi152
The Pterygote Insects153
Coleoptera154
Hymenoptera159
Diptera161
Isoptera162
Other Pterygota166
Gastropoda167
Sampling Techniques for Gastropods168
Oligochaeta--Earthworms169
Earthworm Distribution and Abundance170
Biology and Ecology171
Influence on Soil Processes176
Earthworm Management178
Earthworm Sampling and Identification179
General Attributes of Fauna in Soil Systems181
Faunal Feedbacks on Microbial Community Composition and Diversity182
Summary184
5Decomposition and Nutrient Cycling187
Introduction187
Integrating Variables188
Resource Quality, Climate, and Litter Breakdown190
Dynamics of Litter Breakdown192
Direct Measurement of Litter Breakdown194
Patterns of Mass Loss During Decomposition201
Effects of Fauna on Litter Breakdown Rates204
Nutrient Movement During Decomposition206
Nutrient Cycling Links in Soil Systems215
Role of Soil Fauna in Organic Matter Dynamics and Nutrient Turnover216
Faunal Impacts in Applied Ecology--Agroecosystems220
Applied Ecology in Forested Ecosystems222
Summary225
6Soil Food Webs: Detritivory and Microbivory in Soils227
Introduction227
Physiological Ecology of Soil Organisms229
Energy Available for Detrital Food Chains and Webs231
Arenas of Interest236
A Hierarchical Approach to Organisms in Soils237
Future Research Prospects241
Summary246
7Soil Biodiversity and Linkages to Soil Processes247
Introduction247
Biodiversity in Soils and Its Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystem Function247
Heterogeneity of Carbon Substrates and Effects on Soil Biodiversity259
Impacts of Species Richness on Ecosystem Function259
Models, Microcosms, and Soil Biodiversity263
Experimental Additions and Deletions in Soil Biodiversity Studies265
Problems of Concern in Soil Biodiversity Studies266
Why Is Soil Diversity So High?269
Biogeographical Trends in Diversity of Soil Organisms269
8Future Developments in Soil Ecology271
Introduction271
Roles of Soils in Carbon Sequestration271
Roles of Soils in the Global Carbon Cycle275
Problems in Modeling Soil Carbon Dynamics279
Biological Interactions in Soils and Global Change281
Ecology of Invasive Species in Soil Systems: An Increasing Problem in Soil Ecology285
Soils and "Gaia": Possible Mechanisms for Evolution of "the Fitness of the Soil Environment?"289
Soil Ecology in the Third Millennium293
9Laboratory and Field Exercises in Soil Ecology299
Introduction299
Minirhizotron Studies299
Principle299
Description of a Minirhizotron299
Installation of the Minirhizotrons300
Observation and Recording300
Getting Data from the Videotape300
Tracing Technique300
Automated Root Length Measures301
Soil Respiration Studies301
Principle301
Materials and Supplies Needed301
Procedure302
Calculations302
Litter Decomposition Studies303
Principle303
Litterbag Construction304
Calculations305
Analyses for Soil Microbial Biomass305
The Chloroform-Fumigation K[subscript 2]SO[subscript 4]-Extraction Method305
Principle305
Preparation and Handling of Potassium Sulfate306
Sample Preparation306
Potassium Sulfate Extractions306
Chloroform Fumigation306
Chloroform Removal307
Calculations307
Sampling and Enumeration of Nematodes308
Principle308
Sampling Considerations308
Sampling Tool and Precautions309
Nematode Extraction: Baermann Funnel Method309
Principle309
Materials and Supplies Needed310
Procedure310
Killing and Fixing Nematodes with Hot and Cold Formalin (5%)311
Materials and Supplies Needed311
Procedure311
Sampling and Enumeration of Microarthropods311
Principle311
Methods for the Study of Microarthropods312
Sampling312
Extraction of Microarthropods from Samples313
Sample Sorting and Identification315
Sampling and Enumeration of Macroarthropods317
Principle317
Methods for Sampling Macroarthropods317
Sampling317
Berlese or Tullgren Extraction318
Flotation318
Emergence Traps318
Pitfall Trapping318
Sampling and Enumeration of Earthworms320
Principle320
Collection of Earthworms320
Passive Techniques320
Behavioral Techniques320
Indirect Techniques323
Identification of Earthworms323
Sampling and Enumeration of Enchytraeids323
Principle323
Collection of Enchytraeids324
Identification of Enchytraeids325
References327
Index375

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