Gaseous Matter

Gaseous Matter

by Facts on File



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Gaseous Matter by Facts on File

States of Matter is a six-volume set that covers many significant aspects of physical science, including atoms, the structure and properties of matter, the nature of nuclear and chemical reactions, the behavior of matter in motion, and how energy and matter interact within the universe. Designed to complement science curricula, the books present the key concepts, terms, and technologies used by scientists and engineers in dealing with matter in its more common states here on Earth (namely, gaseous, liquid, solid) and matter in its more extreme states, such as plasma and Bose-Einstein condensates.

Gaseous Matter discusses the most important characteristics and properties of several gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, and nitrogen. In addition to liquids, gases are classified under a larger group of substances called fluids, the study of which has influenced developments in fields ranging from astronautics and engineering to biology, chemistry, and meteorology. While gases constitute Earth's atmosphere and are the primary substance found on the planets Saturn, Uranus, and Jupiter, they can also exist in harmful constructions, such as air pollution in the form of carbon dioxide. This book describes the initial study of gases during the Scientific Revolution, as well as the role of gas dynamics in realizing the dream of human flight.

The volume also includes information on

absolute temperature

greenhouse effect

modern fluid science

aerospace vehicles

harnessing wind


Bernoulli's principle

kinetic theory of gases

The book contains more than 70 color photographs and four-color line illustrations, sidebars, the periodic table, a chronology, a glossary, a detailed list of print and Internet resources, and an index. States of Matter is essential for high school students, teachers, and general readers who wish to learn about the discovery and use of matter and all its intriguing properties.

The States of Matter Set

Energy of Matter

Extreme States of Matter

Gaseous Matter

Liquid Matter

Quantifying Matter

Solid Matter

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780816076079
Publisher: Facts on File, Incorporated
Publication date: 11/01/2010
Series: Facts on File States of Matter Series
Pages: 256
Product dimensions: 7.50(w) x 9.40(h) x 0.80(d)
Age Range: 14 - 17 Years

Table of Contents

Preface vii

Acknowledgments xii

Introduction xiii

1 Gaseous Matter-An Initial Perspective 1

Early Concepts of Matter 1

The Wind and Mythology 2

Archimedes of Syracuse 5

Ctesibius of Alexandria 9

Hypervelocity Gas Guns 10

Heron of Alexandria 13

Turbines 15

Harnessing the Wind for Water Transport 16

2 Physical Characteristics of Gases 19

Physical Change of State 19

Start of Modern Fluid Science 22

Scientific Units 24

Newton's Laws of Motion 25

Force, Energy, and Work 26

Concepts of Density 27

Specific Volume 29

Pressure 29

Blaise Pascal 30

Supercritical Fluid 33

Temperature 34

Rankine-The Other Absolute Temperature 36

Viscosity of Air 36

3 The Rise of the Science of Gases 39

Basic Concepts 39

Fundamentals of Thermodynamics 41

Bernoulli Principle 45

Computational Fluid Dynamics 46

Combustion Helps Scientists Understand Gases 47

Lavoisier and the Rise of Modern Chemistry 50

The Ideal Gas 52

4 Kinetic Theory of Gases 55

Revives Interest in Atomism Dalton 55

Avogadro's Bold Hypothesis 56

Basic Ideas Associated with the Kinetic Theory of Gases 57

Ludwig Boltzmann 60

Diffusion 64

Uranium Enrichment by Gaseous Diffusion 67

Compensating for Real Gas Behavior 68

Mach, Sonic Velocities, and Shock Waves 68

Shock Wave 72

Prandtl and Boundary Layer Theory 73

5 Earth's Atmosphere 75

Physical Properties and Structure of Earth's Atmosphere 75

An Astronaut's View of Earth's Atmosphere 77

The Ionosphere 80

Solar Wind 82

Pressure Variation with Altitude 83

Earth System Science 86

Gaia Hypothesis 87

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 90

Atmosphere-Hydrosphere Interactions 91

Earth's Radiation Budget 94

Svante August Arrhenius 96

Greenhouse Effect 97

6 Wind-its Power and Applications 100

Global Circulation Patterns 100

Air Masses 101

Climate Classifications 102

Paleoclimatology 107

Clouds 109

Thunderstorms 112

Tornadoes 114

Hurricanes 115

Harnessing Wind Power 117

7 Air Pollution 120

Volcanoes 120

Caution: Lungs At Work! 125

Outdoor Air Pollution 127

Paradox of Fire 129

Acid Rain 132

Aerosol 134

Indoor Air Pollution 135

Radon 135

Special Anthropogenic Pollutants 137

8 Human Flight 139

The Dream of Human Flight 140

Lighter Than Air (LTA) Craft 144

Scientific Ballooning 147

First Powered and Controlled Flight 148

Jet Aircraft 149

Gas Turbines Revolutionize Aviation 151

Rocket Planes to the Edge of the Atmosphere 155

X-1 Breaks the Sound Barrier 156

Aerospace Vehicles 157

9 Some Interesting Gases 159

Carbon Dioxide 159

Carbon Sequestration 162

Oxygen 165

Good Ozone and Bad Ozone 166

Nitrogen 168

Ammonia 169

Fluorine 170

Chlorine 171

Helium 172

Neon 173

Argon 174

Krypton 174

Xenon 175

Radon 176

10 Gases for Energy 178

Natural Gas 178

Methane Hydrates 183

Hydrogen 186

11 Conclusion 190

Appendix 193

Chronology 197

Glossary 207

Further Resources 224

Index 231

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