GED Total Solution, For the 2021 GED Test, 2nd Edition

GED Total Solution, For the 2021 GED Test, 2nd Edition

Paperback(Second Edition, Revised)

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“REA is successful at delivering an easy-to-follow prep package developed specifically for self-study. GED Total Solution (2e) and GED Math Test Tutor (2e) are worthy of the highest consideration for students preparing for their GED exams.” Scott Hoffmann, Chief Executive Officer, ProCert Labs LLC (2021)

No matter how long you’ve been away from school, REA can help you ace the GED® test and earn your diploma.

Make REA your first stop for award-winning GED® test prep. Get everything you need in one complete prep pack:

100% aligned and up-to-date for the 2021 GED® test

  • All 4 GED® subjects covered by all-star experts 
  • Fast online diagnostic feedback for each test section: Reasoning Through Language Arts, Mathematical Reasoning, Science, and Social Studies   
  • 2 full-length practice exams so you won't be surprised on test day
  • Proven strategies for tackling the toughest math problems
  • Essays from real GED® candidates show you what works and what doesn’t
  • Examples of every question type 
  • Indexed for quick lookup of any GED® topic

No high school credential is more widely recognized than the GED® diploma. And with a high score, you can earn college credit as well.

Get on your way with REA...

  • Official GED® Partnering Publisher
  • Winner of the ProCert* Excellence in Education Award for Best-in-Class GED® Prep
*The ProCert Certified logo is a registered trademark or trademark of ProCert Communications LLC in the United States and other countries. ProCert Labs specializes in quality assurance of educational products for some of the world's most reputable companies. Its client roster includes Microsoft, Adobe, Cisco, CompTIA, Intuit, and GED Testing Service.

GED® and GED Testing Service® are registered trademarks of the American Council on Education (“ACE”). They may not be used or reproduced without the express written permission of ACE or GED Testing Service LLC. 


Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780738612171
Publisher: Research & Education Association
Publication date: 02/13/2017
Series: GED Test Preparation
Edition description: Second Edition, Revised
Pages: 1056
Sales rank: 113,327
Product dimensions: 8.50(w) x 11.00(h) x 2.10(d)
Age Range: 16 Years

About the Author

Stacey Kiggins is the English Department Chair at Thomas A. Edison High School in Fairfax County, Virginia, where she teaches International Baccalaureate Language and Literature, and Speech and Debate. Ms. Kiggins is an IB English HL Examiner, and serves as the president of the Northern Virginia Chapter of the National Forensics League.

Stephen A. Reiss is the founder and owner of the Math Magician, which has provided math tutoring for a wide array of tests including the GED® test since 1988. Mr. Reiss also operates Reiss SAT Seminars, test preparation centers in San Diego, California. In addition to teaching more than 300 SAT seminars over a 30-year period, Mr. Reiss has authored, co-authored, or edited more than 40 test preps.

Dr. Laurie Callihan is a veteran science author, educator, mentor, and researcher. From 2012 to 2013, she was a Research Implementation and Curriculum Specialist at NYU Steinhardt Department of Teaching and Learning, where she managed the Promoting Science Among English Language Learners (P-SELL) Scale-Up project. In a career spanning 30 years, she has taught science to all age groups. She is also the author of numerous books, including REA test preps for CLEP Biology and CLEP Natural Sciences, and has been featured at national and international speakers’ forums.

Lisa Gail Mullins worked for 16 years as an adult education teacher in Tennessee’s Hawkins-Hancock County Adult Education Program, where she prepared students to succeed on the GED® test. Ms. Mullins also has logged a great many professional development hours with the Tennessee Adult Education Program. She is an adjunct professor at Walters State Community College, where she teaches American History.

Read an Excerpt

Welcome to REA’s Total Solution for the GED® Test, your key to mastering the GED® test.

Choosing REA as your study partner puts you on a path to join the millions of people who have benefited from the educational and career advantages offered by earning one of America’s most recognized credentials.

About This Book + Online Prep
This REA Book + Online Prep was developed to give you all you need to know to perform well on the GED® test. Built from the ground up to ensure that our content thoroughly reflects today’s GED® Assessment Targets, it spans all four test subjects: Reasoning Through Language Arts, Mathematical Reasoning, Science, and Social Studies. Prepared under the supervision of GED Testing Service®, this book is guaranteed to cover 100% of the test objectives — fully and accurately.

This book, along with the valuable tools at the online REA Study Center, provides you with everything you need to master the GED® test content. Our GED® test prep package includes:

• Detailed coverage of how the new GED® test works

• 4 online diagnostic tests (1 for each test section)

• Targeted review for all test sections

• 2 full-length practice tests

We know your time is valuable and you want an efficient study experience. At the online REA Study Center, you’ll get feedback right from the start on what you know and what you don’t. Armed with this information, you can focus your study time on the topics where you need the most help.

Here’s what you’ll find at the online REA Study Center:
4 Diagnostic Exams (1 for each test subject) — Our online diagnostic exams will identify your knowledge gaps in each of the test sections. The diagnostic exams are scored automatically and pinpoint the topics where you need the most review.

Detailed answer explanations for each question show you why the correct answer is right, and explain why the other answer choices are incorrect.

To access this content, visit

GED® Item Types
The GED® test is entirely computer-based. Because the test is given on computer, test administrators have added interactive questions, or as they’re known in testing circles, item types. Learning how these seven item types function is central to understanding the GED® test as a whole:

It’s also important to know that, according to the best information available from test officials, approximately half of the questions on the test will still be in classic multiple-choice format and will have four answers, lettered (A) through (D), from which you will need to choose the best answer.

Not sure what a drag-and-drop question looks like? No worries. We’ve included samples of all the GED® question types to familiarize you with what you can expect to see on test day.

Timing and the GED® Test
The GED® test is given in a computerized, timed format. You will have about seven and one-quarter hours to complete the full exam, but don’t worry, you don’t have to take the entire test in one day. Actually, most GED® test candidates don’t take the whole test in one sitting!

Timing is everything, so it’s crucial that you budget your time wisely. No matter what section of the test you’re taking, you need to answer all the questions before time is up. Better yet, you should try to finish with time to spare so you can return to questions you weren’t sure of or guessed on.

In fact, the GED® test is set up to help you do just that. The test’s review feature allows you to flag questions so you can go back to them later. At the end of the test, the computer will show you which questions you flagged or didn’t answer. Be sure to answer each question — even if you have to guess — because there is no penalty for guessing. If you work slowly or usually run out of time on tests, then you should practice your pacing.

When Should the GED® Test Be Taken?
If you’re currently enrolled in an adult education course, your teacher or advisor will give you feedback on when he or she thinks you’re ready to take the test. If you’re studying on your own, one of the best things you can do to get the ball rolling is to take a practice test and go from there (see our suggested study schedule on page 13). When you feel confident about your abilities and are ready to take the actual exam, go for it! Given the very nature of the GED® test, there’s really no “best” time to take it.

When and Where is the Test Given?
The GED® test is administered year-round on computer at approximately 1,500 testing centers worldwide. The GED® test is offered in English and, at many locations, in Spanish as well. It is also available in French at a small number of testing centers mainly in Canada.

For more information on upcoming administrations of the GED® test, contact your local high school, adult education center, community college, or GED Testing Service® at 1-800-62 MY GED (1-800-626-9433) or visit

You can also locate a testing center near you by visiting (search “testing centers”).

How Do I Register for the Test and Is There a Registration Fee?
All registration for the GED® test is conducted online. You will have to register for the GED® test and pay a registration fee online. At the time of registration you will create an account and schedule your test.

For the most up-to-date information on registration, fees, and to view a tutorial about the registration process, visit You may also call Pearson VUE at 1-877-EXAMGED or 1-877-392-6433, Monday through Friday, 7:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. CST with questions.

Table of Contents

About Our Authors
About REA

About This Book + Online Prep
GED® Item Types
The Reasoning Through Language Arts (RLA) Test
The Mathematical Reasoning Test
The Science Test
The Social Studies Test
Timing and the GED® Test
What Score Do I Need to Pass the GED® Test?
What Score Makes Me Eligible for College Credit?
When Should the GED® Test Be Taken?
When and Where Is the Test Given?
How Do I Register for the Test and Is There a Registration Fee?
Can I Retake the Test?
Accommodations for Test-Takers with Disabilities
Setting Up Your Study Plan
About the Official GED® Practice Tests
Test-Taking Tips
Before the Test
The Day of the Test

Diagnostic Test for Reasoning Through Language Arts
About the GED® Reasoning Through Language Arts Test

Chapter 1: Reading on the GED® Test
Essential Skills
Determine Central Ideas and Summarize Supporting Details and Ideas
Comprehend Explicit Details and Main Ideas in Text
Summarize Details and Ideas in Text
Make Sentence-Level Inferences about Details that Support Main Ideas
Infer Implied Ideas in Paragraphs or Whole Texts
Determine Which Details Support a Main Idea
Identify a Theme in a Text
Make Evidence-Based Generalizations Based on Detail in Text
Draw Conclusions that Require Synthesis of Multiple Main Ideas in Text

Chapter 2: Interpreting Text
Analyze How Individuals, Events, and Ideas Develop and Interact in Text
Order Sequences of Events in Text
Make Inferences about Plot/Sequence of Events, Characters, Settings, or Ideas in Texts
Analyze Relationships between People, Ideas, and Events within Texts
Infer Relationships between Ideas in a Text
Analyze the Role of Details in Complex Literary or Informational Texts

Chapter 3: Interpreting Words and Phrases
Interpret Words and Phrases in Context—Connotative and Figurative Meanings
Determine the Meaning of Words and Phrases in a Text
Analyze How Meaning or Tone is Affected by the Replacement of One Word
Analyze the Impact of Specific Words—Focus on an Author’s Intent

Chapter 4: Analyzing the Structure of Texts
Analyze the Relationship of Specific Sentences or Paragraphs to Each Other and the Whole
Analyze the Contribution of Sentences, Paragraphs, and Chapters to the Development of Ideas
Analyze the Structural Relationship between Adjacent Sections of a Text
Analyze Transitional Language or Signal Words’ Effect on an Author’s Meaning
Analyze How Structure Shapes Meaning and Supports an Author’s Purpose

Chapter 5: Author’s Purpose
Determine an Author’s Point of View and How it Shapes Content and Style
Determine an Author’s Point of View or Purpose
Analyze How an Author Distinguishes Her/His Position
Infer an Author’s Implicit and Explicit Purposes
Analyze How an Author Uses Rhetorical Techniques to Advance Her/His Point of View

Chapter 6: Evaluating the Argument and Claims
Evaluate the Argument and Specific Claims in a Text
Delineate the Specific Steps of an Author’s Argument
Identify Evidence Used to Support Claims or Conclusions
Evaluating Relevance and Sufficiency of Evidence
Distinguish Claims Supported by Reasons and Evidence — or Not
Valid Reasoning versus Fallacious Reasoning
Identify an Underlying Premise and Evaluate Logical Support and Evidence

Chapter 7: Analyzing Similar Themes or Topics
Analyze How Two or More Texts Address Similar Themes or Topics
Compare Two Texts That Address Similar Themes or Topics
Compare Two Passages in Similar or Closely Related Genre That Share Ideas or Themes
Compare Two Argumentative Passages on the Same Topic That Present Opposing Claims
Analyze How Data Supports an Author’s Argument
Compare Two Passages in Different Genres or Formats to Evaluate Differences
Compare Two Passages in Different Genres or Formats to Synthesize Information

Chapter 8: Applying Rules of Standard English: Grammar and Usage
The Ability to Write Clearly
Demonstrate Command of the Conventions of Standard English Grammar and Usage
Edit to Correct Errors Involving Confused Words and Homonyms, Including Contractions
Edit to Correct Errors in Subject-Verb Agreement
Edit to Correct Errors in Pronoun Usage
Edit to Eliminate Non-Standard or Informal Usage
Edit to Eliminate Dangling or Misplaced Modifiers
Edit to Ensure Parallelism and Proper Subordination and Coordination
Edit to Eliminate Wordiness or Awkward Sentence Construction
Edit to Ensure Effective Use of Transitional Words

Chapter 9: Applying Rules of Standard English: Capitalization and Punctuation
Demonstrate Command of the Conventions of Standard English Capitalization and Punctuation
Edit to Ensure Correct Use of Capitalization
Edit to Eliminate Run-On Sentences, Fused Sentences, or Sentence Fragments
Edit to Ensure Correct Use of Apostrophes with Possessive Nouns
Edit to Ensure Correct Use of Punctuation

Chapter 10: Written English in Context: Extended Response
Approaching the Extended-Response Question
Basic Steps for Acing the Extended Response-Question
GED Testing Service® Guidelines/Directions for the Extended Response
Taxation and Revenue Stimulus Passage #1
Taxation and Revenue Stimulus Passage #2
GED® Candidate Sample Responses with Annotations

Diagnostic Test for Mathematical Reasoning
About the GED® Mathematical Reasoning Test

Chapter 1: Operations with Real Numbers
The Real Number System
Adding, Subtracting, Multiplying, and Dividing Real Numbers
Signed Numbers
Absolute Value
Order of Operations
Scientific Notation
Math Practice 1 Questions
Math Practice 1 Answers

Chapter 2: Fractions, Percents, and Decimals
Operations with Fractions
Operations with Decimals
Comparing Fractions and Decimals
Arranging Fractions and Decimals on a Number Line
Simple Interest Problems
Math Practice 2 Questions
Math Practice 2 Answers

Chapter 3: Algebraic Expressions and Equations
Terms and Expressions
Square Roots and Cube Roots
Quadratic Expressions and Equations
Math Practice 3 Questions
Math Practice 3 Answers

Chapter 4: Ratios and Proportions
Definition of Ratio
Applications of Ratios
Definition of Proportion
Applications of Proportions
Percents as Proportions
Math Practice 4 Questions
Math Practice 4 Answers

Chapter 5: Linear Equations and the Coordinate Plane
Functional Notation
The Coordinate Plane
Slopes of Lines
Linear Inequalities
Applications of Linear Models
Quadratic Functions
Math Practice 5 Questions
Math Practice 5 Answers

Chapter 6: Measurement and Geometric Figures
Units of Measure
Geometry: Points, Lines, and Planes
The Distance Formula
The Midpoint Formula
Parallel Lines
Math Practice 6 Questions
Math Practice 6 Answers

Chapter 7: Area, Surface Area, and Volume
Surface Area
Composite Solids
Math Practice 7 Questions
Math Practice 7 Answers

Chapter 8: Statistics and Data Analysis
Measures of Central Tendency
The Mean
The Median
The Mode
The Range
Data Analysis
The Counting Principle
Combinations and Permutations
Math Practice 8 Questions
Math Practice 8 Answers

Chapter 9: Real-World Applications of Mathematical Models
Pathways to Problem Solving
Modeling Real-Life Situations
Representing Real-Life Situations Visually
Using Logic to Solve Real-World Problems
Graphing Real-World Functions
Logic and Counterexamples
Math Practice 9 Questions
Math Practice 9 Answers

Diagnostic Test for Science
About the GED® Science Test

Chapter 1: Life Science
Human Body and Health
Relationship between Life Functions and Energy Intake
Energy Flows in Ecologic Networks (Ecosystems)
Organization of Life
Mitosis and Meiosis
Molecular Basis for Heredity
Science Practice 1 Questions
Science Practice 1 Answers

Chapter 2: Physical Science
Conservation, Transformation, and Flow of Energy
Work, Motion, and Forces
Chemical Properties and Reactions Related to Living Systems
Science Practice 2 Questions
Science Practice 2 Answers

Chapter 3: Earth and Space Science
Interactions between Earth’s Systems and Living Things
Earth and Its System Components and Interactions
Structures and Organization of the Cosmos
Science Practice 3 Questions
Science Practice 3 Answers

Chapter 4: Science Practices
Comprehending Scientific Presentations
Reasoning from Data
Evaluating Conclusions with Evidence
Working with Findings
Expressing Scientific Information
Scientific Theories
Probability and Statistics
Describe a Data Set Statistically
Science Practice 4 Questions
Science Practice 4 Answers

Diagnostic Test for Social Studies
About the GED® Social Studies Test

Chapter 1: Civics and Government
Definition of Government
Eight Parts of the U.S. Constitution
Bill of Rights
Amendments to the U.S. Constitution
Executive Branch of the U.S. Government
Classifying Information
Electoral College
Social Studies Practice 1 Questions: Map and Graph Reading
Social Studies Practice 1 Answers: Map and Graph Reading
Skill Builder: Drawing Conclusions and Making Inferences
Social Studies Practice 1.1 Questions: Civics and Government
Social Studies Practice 1.1 Answers: Civics and Government

Chapter 2: United States History
Building Vocabulary Skills
Landmark Documents
Strategies to Understand Historical Documents
New Deal
Significance of Wars
Reconstruction Policies
Major Movements in United States History
Identifying Sources
Facts and Opinions
Recognizing Bias
Point of View and Frame of Reference
Identifying the Historical Sequence
Strategy for Analysis of Documents
Social Studies Practice 2 Questions
Social Studies Practice 2 Answers

Chapter 3: Economics
What is Economics
Graphs, Charts, and Tables
Types of Economic Systems
Personal Finances and Banking
Average Budget for a Typical American Home
Supply and Demand
Global Economy
Main Idea and Details to Support Conclusions
Predicting an Outcome
Social Studies Practice 3 Questions
Social Studies Practice 3 Answers

Chapter 4: Geography and the World
The Five Themes of Geography
Environmental Issues
Social Studies Practice 4 Questions
Social Studies Practice 4 Answers

Practice Tests

Practice Test Battery 1
Reasoning Through Language Arts Practice Test 1
Answer Explanations
Mathematical Reasoning Practice Test 1
Mathematics Formula Sheet
Answer Explanations
Science Practice Test 1
Answer Explanations
Social Studies Practice Test 1
Answer Explanations

Practice Test Battery 2
Reasoning Through Language Arts Practice Test 2
Answer Explanations
Mathematical Reasoning Practice Test 2
Mathematics Formula Sheet
Answer Explanations
Science Practice Test 2
Answer Explanations
Social Studies Practice Test 2
Answer Explanations

GED® Extended-Response Scoring Rubric


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