Gender Equality and Prayer in Jewish Law

Gender Equality and Prayer in Jewish Law

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789655241983
Publisher: Urim Publications
Publication date: 02/20/2017
Pages: 128
Sales rank: 1,039,812
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.70(d)

About the Author

Rabbi Ethan Tucker was named one of America’s Top 50 Rabbis by Newsweek from 2012 to 2013, and is cofounder and the yeshiva head at Mechon Hadar, where he serves as chair in Jewish Law. Ordained by the Chief Rabbinate of Israel he is a cofounder of Kehilat Hadar and a winner of the first Grinspoon Foundation Social Entrepreneur Fellowship. He lives in New York City. Rabbi Micha’el Rosenberg is an assistant professor of rabbinics at Hebrew College. He was ordained by the Chief Rabbinate of Israel, holds a doctorate in Talmud and Rabbinic Literature from the Jewish Theological Seminary, and is an alumnus of the Wexner Graduate Fellowship program. He lives in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments 7

Introduction 11

Part 1 Serving as Shelihat Tzibbur - Communal Prayer Leader 17

I Reciting the Amidah Aloud at Shaharit, Minhah, Musaf and Ne'ilah 17

A The Argument that Obligation is No Longer Relevant 18

B The Argument from Equality of Obligation 22

1 The Rambam's View: Biblical and Rabbinic Prayer 23

2 Rashi and Ramban: Prayer Is Rabbinic 28

3 The Problem of Women Who Do Not Pray: The Magen Avraham's Defense 31

4 Other Defenses of Pious Women Not Praying 37

Summary 39

II Reciting the Devarim shebikdushah 41

A Gender and Torah Reading 44

1 The First Clauses of the Tosefta and the Baraita: How Gender-Blind is Torah Reading in Theory and Why? 46

a Identity is not relevant for Torah Reading 46

b Torah Reading must be anchored by principals, not adjuncts 49

c Applying and balancing the two approaches: R. Tarn and Ran 53

2 The Second Clauses: Kevod Tzibbur - The Honor of the Community 55

a Defining kevod hatzibbur 55

b May a "community" waive its "honor"? 64

i Kevod tzibbur is a protection for the community that can be waived 64

ii Kevod tzibbur is an objective standard of dignity 66

iii Applying and balancing the two approaches 68

Summary 73

B Are Other Devarim Shebikdushah the Same as Torah Reading? 74

C Other Devarim Shebikdushah: Kedushah, Kaddish and Barekhu 79

1 Individual Obligation in Kedushah, Kaddish and Barekhu? 80

2 Sha'tz as agent for Kedushah, Kaddish and Barekhu? 89

3 Are Kedushah, Kaddish and Barekhu gendered? 93

Summary 98

Part 2 Counting in a Minyan 103

I Biblical and Classical Rabbinic Sources 103

II Medieval Rulings, Interpretations and Additions 114

III What is Minyan and What are the Implications for Gender? 121

A Model I: Covenantal Belonging, Connection to Mitzvot and "Honor of Heaven" - R. Tarn 123

B Model II: Only Maximally Obligated Members of the Community can Represent it in Microcosm - Levush 125

C Weighing the Two Models 127

D Aftermath of R. Simhah and Gender Inclusivity in Minyan in Practice 130

E Those who Reject R. Tarn and the Consequences for Gender and Minyan 141

F Are Contemporary Women Maximally Obligated? 144

IV The Propriety of Mixed-Gender Quorums 147

V Are Gender-Equal Minyanim Wise? 149

Summary 150

Appendix A Talmud Bavli Berakhot 20b 153

Appendix B The "Mitzvah" of Public Prayer 157

Appendix C The Relationship of Zimmun to Other Quorums of Ten 172

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