General Pharmacology

General Pharmacology

by Alfred J. Clark

Paperback(1937)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642805578
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 01/10/2012
Series: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology , #4
Edition description: 1937
Pages: 228
Product dimensions: 6.69(w) x 9.61(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

1: Methods of General Pharmacology.- General Considerations p. 4. — Selection of Material p. 5. — Employment of Physico-chemical Methods p. 5. — The Mathematical Interpretation of Biological Data p. 6. — Favourable Factors in Pharmacological Measurements p. 7. — Curves Relating Exposure to Drugs with Biological Effect p. 7. — Classes of Curves p. 8. — Discussion p. 9.- 2: The Cell as a Physico-chemical System.- The Structure of Protoplasm p. 10. — The Cell Surface p. 12. — Cell Permeability p. 12. — Structure of Plasmatic Membrane p. 14. — Cell Organisation p. 15.- 3: General Characteristics of the Cell-Drug System.- Dimensions of Molecules and Cells p. 17. — The Number of Molecules in Single Cells p. 19. — The Number of Enzyme Molecules per Cell p. 19. — Lethal Doses of Drugs per Cell p. 20. — Effective Doses of Drugs per Cell p. 21. — Minimum Active Doses of Drugs per Organism p. 22. — Minimum Active Dilutions of Drugs p. 22. — Intracellular Administration of Drugs p. 23. — Types of Action of Drugs on Cells p. 25. — Discussion p. 25.- 4: Reactions between Drugs and Active Proteins.- Symplex Compounds p. 26. — Combination of Haemoglobin with Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide p. 27. — Antagonism of Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide p. 29. — Discussion p. 30.- 5: The Action of Drugs on Catalysts and Enzymes.- Poisoning of Inorganic Catalysts p. 31. — General Characters of Enzymes p. 33. — Enzyme Activity p. 34. — General Characters of the Poisoning of Enzymes p. 34. — Diphasic Actions of Enzyme Poisons p. 36. — The Rate of Action of Enzyme Poisons p. 37. — Relation between Concentration of Poison and Inhibitien of Enzyme p. 37. — Discussion p. 40.- 6: Action of Heavy Metals on Enzymes in vitro and in vivo.- Action of Heavy Metals on Saccharase p. 40. — Concentration-action Relations of Heavy Metals and Enzymes p. 42. — The Action of Metals on Living Cells p. 44. — Relation between Metal Concentration and Action on Cells p. 44. — Minimum Lethal Concentrations of Heavy Metals p. 44. — Relative Toxicity of Metals p. 46. — Course of Reaction between Metals and Cells p. 47. — Diphasic Actions of Metals on Cells p. 48. — Discussion p. 49.- 7: Action of Various Enzyme Poisons in vitro and in vivo.- The Action of Dyes on Enzymes p. 50. — Action of Quinine on Enzymes p. 51. — Action of Quinine on Cells p. 52. — Action of Cyanide on Enzymes and Cells p. 52. — Diphasic Actions of Cyanide p. 55. — Phenol Compounds p. 55. — The Action of Narcotics p. 56. — Action of Narcotics on Enzymes p. 56. — Action of Narcotics on Cells p. 59. — Theories of Narcotic Action p. 60. — Discussion p. 61.- 8: Concentration-action Relations I.- (1) Classification of Concentration-action Curves.- Relations Depending on Mass-action p. 63. — All-or-None Effects p. 64.- (2) Concentration-action Relations Attributable to Mass-action Laws.- The Mode of Action of Acetylcholine p. 66. — Amount of Acetylcholine Acting on Cells p. 69. — Individual Variation p. 70. — Site of Action of Acetylcholine p. 70. — Influence of Temperature on Acetylcholine Response p. 72. — Specificity of Acetylcholine Action p. 72. — Possible Nature of Acetylcholine Receptors p. 73. — Acetylcholine Esterase p. 74. — Concentration-action Relations of Adrenaline p. 74. — Dosage of Adrenaline p. 75. — Concentration-action Relations Found with Various Hormones p. 76. — Insulin p. 76. — Thyroxin p. 77. — Posterior Pituitary Principles p. 77. — Sex Hormones p. 77. — Various Alkaloids p. 78. — Nicotine p. 78. — Physostigmine p. 79. — Other Alkaloids p. 79.- 9: Concentration-action Relations II.- (3) Linear Relations; Action of Narcotics.- (4) All-or-None Responses.- Instrumental Errors p. 83. — Distortion by the Cell of some Chemical Relation p. 83. — Obligatory All-or-None effects p. 84. — All-or-None Cellular Responses p. 85. — Concentration-action Curves with Guinea Pig’s Uterus p. 86. — Drugs Producing All-or-None Effects p. 87. — Discussion p. 89.- 10: Quantitative Pharmacology and the Theory of Humoral Transmission.- p. 90. — Quantitative Data p. 91. — Rate of Action p. 92. — Concentration-action Relations p. 93. — Specific Antagonisms p. 95. — Discussion p. 96.- 11: Kinetics of Drug Action.- Sources of Error in Kinetic Measurements.- (1) Kinetics of Reactions in Heterogenous Systems.- (2) Kinetics of Cell Reaction.- Delays in Drug Action Due to Diffusion to Cell Surface p. 98. — Penetration of Cells p. 100. — Delay in Biological Response p. 102.- (3) Maximum Rate of Drug Action.- 12: The Rate of Action of Drugs on Cells.- (1) Curves Relating Time and Graded Action.- The Shapes of Time-action Curves p. 107.- (2) Curves Relating Time and All-or-None Effects.- Kinetics of Protein Precipitation p.110. — Precipitation of Protein by Phenol p. 111.- (3) Time Action Curves as Expressions of Variation.- Calculation of Time-action Curves p. 114. — Time Relations of Toxic Action of Copper on Algae p. 115.- (4) Implications of Monomolecular Theory.- Quantitative Measurements of Drug Uptake p. 118. — Drug Actions as Chain Processes p. 119.- (5) Mortality Curves.- (6) Action of Radiations.- Discussion p. 122.- 13: Time-concentrations Curves.- (1) Form of Curves and Possible Significance.- (2) Time-concentration Curves of Nerve Paralysis.- (3) Time-concentration Curves with Various Drugs.- (4) Time-concentration Relations in Disinfection.- (5) Toxic Vapours.- Deviation of Narcotics p. 139. — Time-concentration Curves of Anaesthetics p. 140. — Time-concentration Curves of Hydrocyanic Acid p. 141. — Irritant Gases p. 141. — Discussion p. 142.- 14: Individual Variation of Response to Drugs.- Methods of Measurement of Individual Variation p. 142. — Skew Variation in Biological Material p. 144. — Normal Equivalent Deviation p. 146. — Errors in Construction of Characteristic Curves p. 148. — Uniformity of Population p. 148. — Errors of Sampling p. 149.- 15: Relation between Various Types of Curves Expressing Response of Cells to Drugs.- (1) Concentration-action Curves as Expressions of Individual Variation.- Virus Infections p. 151. — Discussion p. 153.- (2) Characteristic Curves as Expressions of Chemical Processes.- (3) Correlation between Concentration-action Curves and Characteristic Curves.- Examples of Skewed Characteristic Curves p. 156. — All-or-None Effects p. 161. — Discussion p. 162.- (4) Drug Responses and Individual Variation.- 16: Special Problems Relating to Variation of Populations.- Uniformity of Population p. 165. — Influence of Sex, Age and Weight on Response to Drugs p. 166. — Seasonal Variations in Sensitivity p. 169. — Variation in Human Populations p. 169. — Hypersensitivity and Idiosyncrasy p. 171. — Margin of Safety with Massive Doses p. 173. — Disinfection, etc. p. 175.- 17: Quantitative Aspects of Drug Antagonism and of Drug Synergism.- p. 176. — The antagonism of cyanides by narcotics p. 177. — Selective Antagonisms with Haemoglobin p. 180. — Antagonism in Enzyme Poisoning p. 181. — Acetyl Choline-Atropine Antagonism p. 184. — AdrenalineErgotoxine Antagonism p. 186. — Synergists of Adrenaline p. 187. — Comparison of Antagonisms found with Enzymes and with Hormones p. 188.- 18: Qualitative Aspects of Drug Antagonism.- p. 190. — Antagonism of Adrenaline p. 191. — Chemical Structure of Acetyl Choline Antagonists p. 191. — Acetyl Choline Antagonism in Different Tissues p. 193. — Analysis of Drug Actions by Drug Antagonisms p. 196. — General Theory of Drug Antagonisms p. 198.- 19: Alternative Theories of Drug Action.- Monomolecular Theory p. 199. — The Potential Theory of Drug Action p. 200. — Phasic response of cells p. 201. — Arndt-Schulz Law p. 204. — Drug Responses as Expression of Individual Variation p. 204. — Weber-Fechner Law p. 205. — Discussion p. 205.- 20: Quantitative Aspects of Chemotherapy.- p. 206. — Action of Metallic Compounds p. 207. — Action of Non-metallic Compounds p. 212. — Drug-resistance p. 213. — Discussion p. 214.- 21: Conclusion.- Index of Authors.- Index of Subjects.

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