Who, in 1945 and 1946, could have foreseen that the economic and social integration of the millions of Germans from the East expelled into West Germany after Wodd War II would largely be accomplished in a few years? And, who could have foreseen that many years after this accomplishment the political repercussions of the expulsions would go on? Yet, surprisingly enough, this is what has happened. In 1969, as usual, the major issues of the federal election campaign in West Germany hardly reflect any specific economic and social concerns of the expellees, not even those bruited about by the NPD (N ationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands). At the same time, how ever, all the political parties vying in the campaign, with the exception of the newly founded, less influentialDKP (the new German Commu nist Party), pay considerable deference to the political interests of the expellees in the German question. Whether these interests represent the opinion of most of the expellees and whether the expellee associ ations in fact speak for many voters is another matter. Why are these questions rarely posed? Why, despite the economic and social integration of the expellees, do the East German Home land Provincial Societies - the Landsmannschaften - retain much influence? The explanation of this phenomenon becomes increasingly clear if one reads the intelligent and superbly documented analysis by Hans Schoenberg.
Table of ContentsI. Forced Migrations in Modern History: An Introduction.- A. “Century of the Homeless Man”.- B. Scope and Approach.- C. General Background.- 1. Political Emigration.- 2. The Balkan Minorities.- 3. Forced Mass Migrations under Nationalist and Communist Totalitarian Systems.- II. Background, Flight and Expulsions of East Germans and Ethnic Germans.- A. German Settlements in East Europe.- B. 1914 to 1942: Changes and Plans.- C. The Westward Flight: 1943 to 1945.- 1. Military Operations in Eastern Europe.- 2. Evacuation, Flight, Subsequent Events.- D. The Potsdam Conference and the Expulsions.- E. Reasons and Reactions.- 1. The Allied Leaders.- 2. Reaction in the West.- 3. The Red Army.- F. Summary and Conclusions.- III. Resettlement and Integration.- A. Reception.- B. Policy under the Allies.- C. Policy under the Bonn Government.- 1. Major Economic Measures.- 2. Economic and Social Position of Expellees.- 3. Self-employed Expellees.- 4. Germans from Communist Germany.- D. Summary and Conclusions.- 1. Expellees and Refugees in West Germany.- 2. East Germans Outside West Germany.- IV. Expellee Organizations.- A. Origins.- B. State and National Organizations.- C. The Homeland Provincial Movement.- 1. The Northeast German Group.- 2. The Silesian Group.- 3. The Sudeten Group.- 4. The Southeast German Group.- D. Expansion of the Movement.- 1. The New National Federation.- a. Structure.- b. Membership and Finances.- 2. Expellee Press and Reunions.- 3. Cultural Relations and Contacts Abroad.- 4. Expellees in Public Life.- a. Expellees in Government and Politics.- b. Expellees in Education.- c. Expellees in the Churches.- E. Conclusions.- V. Political Aims of the Expellees.- A. Common Tenets.- 1. Basic Policy Statements.- 2. Varying Interpretations.- 3. Implementation.- B. Homeland Provincial Claims.- 1. Ethnic Germans.- 2. Reich Germans.- 3. Sudeten German Policy.- C. Assertion of German Rights.- 1. The “Right to the Homeland”.- 2. The Right to Self-Determination.- 3. The Legal Status of Germany.- D. Summary, Reactions and Conclusions.- 1. Reaction in East and West.- 2. Exile Mentality.- VI. The West German Public.- A. Policy Positions.- 1. Major Political Parties.- 2. Legislative Resolutions.- 3. Government Position.- a. Legal and Information Policy.- b. Public Schools.- c. Foreign Policy.- d. Quasi-Official Position.- B. Positions Outside the Government.- 1. Reactions Among West Germans.- 2. Right Radical Reaction.- General Summary and Conclusions.- Postscript.- Tables and Illustrations.- Index of Persons.