This is the first full-length historical study of Gestalt psychology--an attempt to advance holistic thought within natural science. Holistic thought is often portrayed as a wooly-minded revolt against reason and modern science, but this is not so. On the basis of rigorous experimental research and scientific argument as well as on philosophical grounds, the Gestalt theorists Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler and Kurt Koffka opposed conceptions of science and mind that equated knowledge of nature with its effective manipulation and control. Instead, they attempted to establish dynamic principles of inherent, objective order and meaning in current language, principles of self-organization in human perception and thinking, in human and animal behavior, and in the physical world. The impact of their work ranged from cognitive science to theoretical biology and film theory. Based on exhaustive research in primary sources, including archival material cited here for the first time, this study illuminates the multiple social and intellectual contexts of Gestalt theory and analyzes the emergence, development and reception of its conceptual foundations and research programs from 1890 to 1967.
Table of ContentsList of illustrations; Preface; Introduction; Part I. The Social and Intellectual Settings: 1. The academic environment and the establishment of experimental psychology; 2. Carl Stumpf and the training of scientists in Berlin; 3. The philosophers' protest; 4. Making a science of mind: styles of reasoning in sensory physiology and experimental psychology; 5. Challenging positivism: revised philosophies of mind and science; 6. The Gestalt debate: from Goethe to Ehrenfels and beyond; Part II. The Emergence of Gestalt Theory, 1910-1920: 7. Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Köhler; 8. Laying the conceptual and research foundations; 9. Reconstructing perception and behaviour; 10. Insights and confirmations in animals: Köhler on Tenerife; 11. The step to natural philosophy: Die Physischen Gestalten; 12. Wertheimer in times of war and revolution: science for the military and toward a new logic; Part III. The Berlin School in Weimar Germany: 13. Establishing the Berlin School; 14. Research styles and results; 15. Theory's growth and limits: development, open systems, self and society; 16. Variations in theory and practice: Kurt Lewin, Adhemar Gelb and Kurt Goldstein; 17. The encounter with Weimar culture; 18. The reception among German-speaking psychologists; Part IV. Under Nazism and After: Survival and Adaptation: 19. Persecution, emigration and Köhler's resistance in Berlin; 20. Two students adapt: Wolfgang Metzger and Kurt Gottschaldt; 21. Research, theory and system: continuity and change; 22. The post-war years; Appendices; List of unpublished sources; Notes; Index.