In 2009, malaria infected an estimated 225 million people and killed 781,000 people, most of whom, were children under the age of five in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the current burden of disease, malaria is preventable and treatable. Congress has increasingly recognized malaria as an important foreign policy issue, and the United States has become a major player in the global response to the disease. The 112th Congress will likely debate the appropriate funding levels and optimum strategy for addressing the continued challenge of global malaria. This book outlines basic facts related to global malaria, including characteristics of the epidemic and U.S. legislation, programs, funding and partnerships related to the global response to malaria.