By accident, the world-famous brewery Carlsberg became a central force in global marine science during the first three decades of the 20th century. Within a core group of scientists and managers, Johannes Schmidt (1877-1933) was the key figure combining the efforts of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), the Danish state and several private companies. Launching 26 oceangoing expeditions Schmidt made landmark discoveries such as the breeding ground for the Atlantic eel in the Sargasso Sea. The scientific frontier was pushed literally kilometres into the deep sea and across the World’s oceans. While the formal North Atlantic Empire of the small state of Denmark was in decline, an informal empire of science was erected instead.
Shortlisted for the Society for Nautical Research Anderson Medal for published works on Maritime History in 2016.
|Publisher:||Brill Academic Publishers, Inc.|
|Product dimensions:||7.80(w) x 10.40(h) x 1.10(d)|
About the Author
Bo Poulsen, Ph.D. (2006), University of Southern Denmark, is Associate Professor of Environmental History at Aalborg University. For his interdisciplinary work, such as the monograph Dutch Herring (Aksant, 2008), he has been awarded the Danish Research Project of the Year Award and the Hoogendijk Prize.
Table of Contents
List of figures, tables and illustrations 9Acknowledgements 13Introduction 17A symmetrical biography 20Actors and structures – money and conflict 21Main argument 25To sea – a placeless place 26Historiography 29Archival source material 331 Formative years (1877–1903) 37The Carlsberg Brewery 38The Carlsberg Laboratory 42The Carlsberg Foundation 44Student years 46Ingeborg 49The Siam Expedition, 1899–1900 51Teaching assistant and doctoral thesis 54Conclusion 552 The legend of the unintentional eel larvae 57The state of fisheries in Danish society 59The Danish Biological Station and C. G. J. Petersen 61Petersen’s eel investigations 65Leptocephalus brevirostris 67An international research station 69Schmidt enters marine science 70Formalizing international marine science 71Central Bureau in Copenhagen 73Implementing ICES agreements in Danish marine science 75Acquiring Thor 761903 Instructions 77Hiring Johannes Schmidt 77Trawling deep waters 79Bjarni Sæmundsson 801904 – Eel in the North Atlantic 82The telegram announcement 83Petersen on the Atlantic larvae 85Straying off the Danish ICES areas 87Petersen’s light experiment 89Conclusion 903 Petersen’s attempted coup d’état 93Downsizing the Danish commission 94A strained relationship 95Danish commission taking stock of investigations in 1907 96Petersen’s memorandum to the Ministry of Agriculture 97Petersen’s job offer 100Rebel assistants 102Petersen’s last bout in the commission 106Restructuring the Danish commission – enter Johannes Schmidt 108Different personalities 109Biologisk Station after 1908 109Conflict resurfaced in 1916 111Schmidt becomes a member of the Kommissionen for Havundersøgelser 111Conclusion 1124 The Mediterranean expeditions (1908–1910) 117Stormy welcome to the Mediterranean winter 119Probing a mare incognitum 123National fame and well-paid jobs 126Proposing a summer cruise to the Mediterranean 127Network mobilization 129Return to the Mediterranean in the summer of 1910 132Scientific results from the Mediterranean 134‘Sickening to think that the Norwegians will come first’ 135Conclusion 1375 Director at the Carlsberg Laboratorium 139Laboratory legacy 139Terms of employment 141An inside job 144Research topics at the laboratory 146Hereditary qualities of a scent 149‘Racial Investigations’ 152The ‘diallel crossings’ 156Investigations with Zoarces 158A chicken farm 161Conclusion 1626 Carlsberg appreciation 165Schmidt’s laboratory expenses 165Carlsberg Laboratory appreciation 170The globetrotter director 171The slightest undercurrent of critique 177The unfortunate Klöcker 178Taking stock of the lab after Schmidt 182Conclusion 1887 Atlantic adventures 191The Danish West Indies and marine science 192Foreningen De Danske Atlanterhavsøer 195Marine research initiatives and the Danish West Indies 197Ships of opportunity 199Funding the trip with Margrethe – Vendsyssel Packing Co Ltd 200Hops across the Atlantic 205Troubled testing of Margrethe 207Final instructions 208Eel plans stranded in the Caribbean 209Green turtles and red goatfish 213Conclusion 2168 Collecting funds for an Atlantic deep sea investigation 217Finding ‘a rich man’ post the Margrethe 217World War One – marine science in dry-dock 219ICES and the Danish commission during World War One 220Schmidt’s dismal search for money 1914–16 222To catch a goldfish 223An Atlantic deep sea expedition 225Confidential news from Drechsel 227Collecting cash funds 229Conclusion 2299 Resistance from the sea – Danish marine scientists and the sale of the Danish West Indies 233Johannes Schmidt’s expert opinion 235‘It is despicable to sell parts of one’s country’ 236Andersen and Glückstadt before the commission 237Andersen’s influence on the decision to sell 238Public debates and De Danske Atlanterhavsøer 239Marine scientists’ agitation 240Support from Andreas de Richelieu 243The scientists’ no-confidence motion 244Tropics sold for gold and Greenland 246Conclusion 24610 The Atlantic expeditions with the M/S Dana 249‘You will be dancing like a bear’ 249Peace and further planning 251The terms of using the motor schooner M/S Dana 253‘A New Danish Deep Sea Expedition’ Press release 255Reconnecting with ICES 258The 1920 and 1921 expeditions with M/S Dana 259Conclusion 26311 The great Atlantic expedition with the R/V Dana 265Buying the R/V Dana 265Kick off and Schmidt’s nationalism 270Pacific dreams 271Carlsberg Foundation as a strategic resource 274Probing the Pacific 276Drechsel’s disappointment 278Homecoming 281Deep sea anglerfish and spirula 282Total expenditure 285The ageing of the freshwater eel in open sea 287Film, fame, and medals 289Conclusion 29212 Marking cod and territory in the North Atlantic 295Denmark in ICES 296Collaboration – and ‘The Norse issue’ 297Marking cod and territory in 1924 301The life history of commercial species 312Tagging on to the genetic studies 317The importance of nurseries 319Conclusion 32013 Organizing the Carlsberg Expedition around the world 323Eels east of Suez 324Recreation and work around the World 326Fundraising in the USA 329Approaching the Carlsberg Foundation 333A census of marine life – the cruise plan presented 335Planning equipment, engine, and crew 338Institutional arrangements 343Conclusion 34514 Around the World in Two Years349Leaving Copenhagen 349Across the Pacific 352Official representation in New Zealand and Australia 353South East Asian travels spring and summer 1929 357Life on board 361The lure of ethnographica 369Conclusion 37215 Stretching the expedition, stretching ties to Carlsberg 375Overspending and changing plans? 375Going south round of Africa 386Return to the Mediterranean 388‘To the honour of Denmark’ 393Pelted with unpleasantness 396Total costs 400Conclusion 40216 Measures of impact and legacy 405Popularising marine science 406The last project 407Indo-Pacific eel 410Hydrography and the Carlsberg Ridge 411The Dana Reports and Carlsberg legacy 415Medals of impact 417The continental drift – and eels 419The Galathea II Expedition and beyond 420Conclusion 42217 A fortunate man 425The manager 428The fundraiser 432An accidental institutionalization 439Eugen Warming 441Carl H. Ostenfeld 442Christian F. Drechsel 445C. G. Joh Petersen 446Technological leaps 447Cosmopolitan conservatives 449An informal maritime empire 454Conclusion 456Summary 459Archival sources 469Carlsberg Archives 469Carlsberg Foundation, Copenhagen 474Archives of the Danish Film Institute 476Rigsarkivet (Public Records Office), Copenhagen 476Royal Library, Copenhagen 484The Archives of the Museum of Natural History 495Published sources 497Index 515